Quantification et modélisation de la morphogenèse foliaire

Abstract : Plant leaves are important for the production of biomass in nature, because they are the main site of photosynthesis, They have various shapes and it has been shown that their morphology influences photosynthesis efficiency. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for morphogenesis, i.e. the genesis of the shape during development, is therefore a matter of interest. To be analyzed, morphogenesis must be apprehended throughout the whole growth because the leaf final form is the result of coordinated mechanisms in space and time. To understand this type of complex processes, modeling is an approach of choice. Consequently, the objective of this thesis was to develop strategies for the quantification and modeling of morphogenesis to better understand leaf development. To quantify morphogenesis, my first contribution was to develop methods to precisely date the appearance of the leaves on the plant, and of the serrations at the leaf margin, allowing to register in time and to compare different growing leaves. Besides, based on mean growth trajectories, it is possible to specify where and when the developments of different leaves differ, at global and serration scales, during growth.By analyzing the development of leaves of the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana that have different shapes, in wild type or in mutants, it has been shown that, despite significant differences in leaf size and shape, there is a similarity in the development of all serrations. These results suggest that there are identical processes that control the appearance and growth of serrations. I proposed two leaf development models, based on biological mechanisms that have been identified, in the literature, as important for the leaf shaping, and also on the quantification of leaf morphogenesis performed in this work. The simulation module, that generates growth trajectories from the model, makes it possible to compare simulated and real developments. To parameterize the model, an optimization approach has been proposed to determine optimal parameters, which minimizes the differences between simulation and real growths. The results showed that the sequential appearance of the teeth as well as important morphological characteristics can be well reproduced by the models.
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Mohamed Said Oughou. Quantification et modélisation de la morphogenèse foliaire. Bio-informatique [q-bio.QM]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLA005⟩. ⟨tel-02305495⟩

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