Conséquences du contexte haplotypique sur la fonctionnalité des protéines : application à la mucoviscidose

Abstract : We all carry hundreds of thousands genetic variations in our genome that, for the most of them, have no impact on our health. After sequencing, they must be filtered to only retain those potentially involved in a disease. We use annotators that predict the impact of variants.These predictions are done for each variant taken independently without considering cis variants in the same gene. However, neutral variants can become deleterious when associated together. I have developed the bioinformatics tool GEMPROT, which makes it possible to visualize the effect of genetic variants on the protein sequence and to highlight combinations of variants affecting the same functional domain.I then studied the impact of two variants associated with p.Phe508del (508del) on CFTR protein function.The variant p.Val470M is present on all carrying deletion haplotypes but not on the reference sequence, which is generally used for the construction of plasmids. We have shown differences in the function of the mutated CFTR protein 508del according to the amino acid at position 470. The function is increased with a Valine and it is therefore necessary to ensure, when constructing plasmids, that the haplotype context of the studied variants is well respected.The variant p.Ile1027Thr leads to a degradation of the function of the 508del protein. This variant is present only on a portion of the 508del haplotypes and could therefore have a modifying effect on deletion expression. In conclusion, we show the importance of considering haplotype contexts in the diseases studies and propose a bioinformatics tool to do so.
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Tania Cuppens. Conséquences du contexte haplotypique sur la fonctionnalité des protéines : application à la mucoviscidose. Génétique. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BRES0031⟩. ⟨tel-02304777⟩

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