Hypermutation somatique dans les cellules B normales et pathologiques : éléments cis-régulateurs et facteurs nucléaires impliqués

Abstract : By introducing frequent point mutations into the variable regions of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, somatic hypermutation (SHM, initiated by the AID deaminase) is a driving force for antibody affinity maturation. It is now admitted that AID-induces mutations in germinal centre B cells could affect in parallel to their Ig genes physiological targets, illegitimates targets (including oncogenes) so calles "off targets" (such as Bcl6 with frequent point mutation in B lymphomas). The high risk of "collateral damage" in the B cell genome implies that remodeling events are precisely surveyed. Among cisregulatory elements involved (transcriptional enhancers and chromatin isolators and anchors...), one best candidate is the intronic region including the cEμ enhancer and iths flanking MARsEμ regions that we have been studying extensively using mouse KO model. We recently showed that MARsEμ deletion decreases SHM not only at Ig Heavy chain locus IgH (physiological cis effect) but surprisingly also at the Ig Light chain Kappa locus Ig, located on a different chromosome (trans effect). To extend the study of this intriguing trans effect, we developed a bioinformatic tool called DeMinEr that unveiled that MARsEμ regions were also involved in AID-induced collateral damages to "off-targets". Using FISH 3D, we show that MARsEμ regions harboured the potential not only to locally recruit SHM but also to cause dynamic changes of nuclear structures. The surprising cis and trans effect of MARsEμ deletion, impacting simultaneously nuclear positioning and SHM, revealed an additional level of regulation for targeting mutations to Ig and "off-targets" genes.
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Ophélie Alyssa Martin. Hypermutation somatique dans les cellules B normales et pathologiques : éléments cis-régulateurs et facteurs nucléaires impliqués. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0037⟩. ⟨tel-02304317⟩

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