Développement d'une approche non-ciblée par empreinte pour caractériser la qualité sanitaire chimique de matrices agro-alimentaires complexes

Abstract : Ensuring food safety, especially toward chemical contaminants, is an issue in constant evolution due to multiple sources of contamination (pesticides, mycotoxins, neoformed contaminants, migrants from packaging among others). Currently, several targeted analyses are needed to fully assess the chemical safety of foods, generating high cost. Moreover, despite the number of analyses performed, a contaminant not targeted is not detected. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new methods based on non-targeted approaches able to assess, through analysis of chemical fingerprints, the occurrence of as many contaminants as possible in a food matrix. The main purpose of this work lies in the use of high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and chemometrics in order to develop a method capable of assessing food safety. Tea has been chosen as a development product for its analytical complexity, its broad consumption and its safety issues. A first proof-of-concept of the method has been set up on a reference green tea with a pool of 32 representative food contaminants, chosen for their diversity in terms of sources and chemical structures. More complex situations were further investigated with different types of tea, several brands considered at once and, last but not least, with the application to blind detection of contaminants in complex cases. Free and open-source data analysis tools were used to build a unified data treatment process to analyze data from two LC-HRMS analytical platforms of different technologies (ToF and Orbitrap), which is new for food safety studies. The development of this process also enabled a methodological study of the behavior of several tools used in untargeted approaches for food safety.
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Grégoire Delaporte. Développement d'une approche non-ciblée par empreinte pour caractériser la qualité sanitaire chimique de matrices agro-alimentaires complexes. Chimie analytique. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLA034⟩. ⟨tel-02304147⟩

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