Rôle de la phosphatase PRL-3 et de CRMP2 dans la migration et l'invasion du mélanome uvéal

Abstract : Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare tumor (500 to 600 new cases by year in France) but this is the most common intraocular cancer in adult. This tumor is due to melanocytes transformation derived from neural crest and localized in uvea (choroid, ciliary body and iris). Despite the primary tumor treatment, up to 50% of patients will develop metastases mostly localized in liver within the years following diagnosis. The median survival rate of metastasis formation is only six months. Indeed, there are currently no effective treatments against metastasis. Therefore, a better comprehension of UM metastatic process and identification of the genes involved are major issues for the development of new therapies. A transcriptomic analysis done in our laboratory allows to identify the phosphatase PRL-3 whose overexpression is correlated with metastatic development and patients poor prognosis. Besides being a bad prognosis marker, functional studies showed that UM cells expressing PRL-3 migrate faster and are more invasive than cells expressing the catalytic dead mutant of the phosphatase. The role of PRL-3 in tumorigenesis and metastatic development is well described, and numerous studies investigate his mechanism of action and his intracellular substrates. Interestingly, some of the identified PRL-3’s targets are cytoskeletal proteins. In order to identify new PRL-3’s targets in UM, we realized a phosphoproteomic analysis that allows us to identify CRMP2. CRMP2 is a cytoskeletal protein that has been mostly described in the nervous system. CRMP2 plays a role in axonal guidance, neuritis extension, microtubules dynamics and vesicular trafficking. During my PhD, I confirmed that in UM cells, PRL-3 expression modify the phosphorylation state of CRMP2 in particular on T514 and S522 residues. Moreover, CRMP2 and PRL-3 interact together and CRMP2 is less phosphorylated on the T514 following the interaction, which suggests that CRMP2 is a target of PRL-3. Furthermore, we showed that CRMP2 KO by shRNA increases UM cells velocity and invasion in cells expressing PRL-3. So CRMP2 is a brake to the migration and invasion process in UM cells. These observations are correlated with a reorganization of actin cytoskeleton with a reduction of stress fibers. The study of the microrheological properties of UM cells showed that PRL-3 expression and/or CRMP2 KO increases the viscosity, elasticity and stiffness of the cytoplasm. CRMP2 KO changes these properties only when PRL-3 is not functional which suggests that concerning the micro-rheology, CRMP2 KO is equivalent the its dephosphorylation by PRL-3. Finally, in UM tumors, CRMP2 expression are correlated with good survival prognosis. My PhD also gave me the opportunity to participate to the creation of a map about interactions and signaling pathways involving PRL-3 in cancers as part of the NaviCell project. This map was integrated in ASCN database.
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Laura Duciel. Rôle de la phosphatase PRL-3 et de CRMP2 dans la migration et l'invasion du mélanome uvéal. Cancer. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS233⟩. ⟨tel-02304146⟩

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