Comportement thermo-hygro-mécanique différé des feuillus : des sciences du bois à l'ingénierie

Abstract : The design and verification of timber structures, for use in Civil Engineering, is governed by the European standard Eurocode 5. It allows to size any structure element according to the load applied to it and assumptions about its environment. Essentially coordinated by the Nordic timber industry, this standard is based on the exclusive use of softwoods. However, French country has the largest hardwood forest in Europe. Today, these species have their place in timber structures by considering, for example, natural durability properties. Unfortunately, these species are not today considered in design rules. The EFEUR5 project, funded by the National Research Agency, aims to respond to this problem by doing work like those already carried out for softwoods. Thus, the work objectives are for understanding and modeling the long-term mechanical behavior of French hardwood species like oak, beech and poplar. In support of these species, Douglas fir is added as the conifer reference.The study starts with the anatomical structure analysis of the of the species studied. The objective of this analysis is to highlight the differences between these four species. Because the long-term mechanical behavior depends on moisture content, we must first determine the evolution of moisture in the section of a structural element. For this, it is presented in this chapter an innovative experimental protocol for determining the diffusion properties of a test tube located outdoors. The identification of the diffusion properties carried out we propose a study of the sensitivity of the water behavior differences on a structural element.The implementation of the evolution of moisture within a structure element, regardless of its geometry and environment, we present the different physical phenomena involved when creeping a structural element and their implementation in a code with finite elements. Next, we describe the completion of two four-point bending benches at the metric scale of hardwood and Douglas-fir beams. The instrumentation allows to analyze their deferred behavior according to their environment. In a second step, these numerical data are used to determine the hydro viscoelastic properties enabled, by inverse analysis. Thus, a comparison of the viscoelastic properties between these four species is presented.We conclude this study with a proposal for a new approach for considering the delayed mechanical behavior of structural elements. The approach consists in the determination of the long-term behavior through a reference behavior. The prediction of long-term deflection is then defined from the average humidity of the study element. This approach makes it possible to report both the geometry of the beam and its initial humidity.
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Maximin Varnier. Comportement thermo-hygro-mécanique différé des feuillus : des sciences du bois à l'ingénierie. Génie civil. Université de Limoges, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LIMO0035⟩. ⟨tel-02303304⟩

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