Méthodes statistiques pour les essais de phase I/II de thérapies moléculaires ciblées en cancérologie

Abstract : Conventional dose-finding approaches in oncology of phase I clinical trials aim to identify the optimal dose (OD) defined as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), based on the toxicity events observed during the first treatment cycle. The constant development of molecularly targeted agents (MTAs), usually administered in chronic schedules, has challenged this objective. Not only, the outcomes after the first cycle are of importance, but also activity does not necessarily increase monotonically with dose. Therefore, both toxicity and activity should be considered for the identification of the OD. Lately, continuous biomarkers are used more and more to monitor activity. The aim of this thesis was to propose and evaluate adaptive designs for the identification of the OD. We developed two dose-finding designs, based on a joint modeling of longitudinal continuous biomarker activity measurements and time to first dose limiting toxicity (DLT), with a shared random effect, using skewed normal distribution properties. Estimation relied on likelihood that did not require approximation, an important property in the context of small sample sizes, typical of phase I/II trials. We addressed the important case of missing at random data that stem from unacceptable toxicity, lack of activity and rapid deterioration of phase I patients. The MTD was associated to some cumulative risk of DLT over a predefined number of treatment cycles. The OD was defined as the lowest dose within a range of active doses, under the constraint of not exceeding the MTD. The second design extended this approach for cases of a dose-activity relationship that could reach a plateau. A change point model was implemented. The performance of the approaches was evaluated through simulation studies, investigating a wide range of scenarios and various degrees of data misspecification. As a last part, we performed an analysis of 27 phase I studies of MTAs, as monotherapy, conducted by the National Cancer Institut. The primary focus was to estimate the per-cycle risk and the cumulative incidence function of severe toxicity, over up to six cycles. Analyses were performed separately for different dose subgroups, as well as for hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities.
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Maria Athina Altzerinakou. Méthodes statistiques pour les essais de phase I/II de thérapies moléculaires ciblées en cancérologie. Cancer. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS375⟩. ⟨tel-02303040⟩

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