Hydrophilic Antioxydant Systems for Cardiovascular Applications : Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

Abstract : An over concentration of reactive oxygen species induces a redox imbalance within the cell inducing oxidative tissue damage and leading to oxidative stress related diseases, particularly cardiovascular pathologies. Astaxanthin, a well-known and studied antioxidant molecule, member of the xanthophyll carotenoid family, presents an important therapeutic potential. However, the chemical structure confers to astaxanthin a hydrophobic character and renders it susceptible to air, light and temperate degradation. During this thesis, a carrier system based on astaxanthin inclusion within hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin(CD-A) was developed. We demonstrate that after astaxanthin inclusion, not only its stability was enhanced by also the antioxidant scavenging capabilities were preserved, confirmed by chemical and biological tests. The action of CD-A seems to be mediated by PTEN/AKT, Nrf2/OH1/NQO1 signaling pathways of endothelial cells submitted to oxidative stress. Then, two systems based on PVA/dextran and Pullulan/Dextran loaded within CD-A were evaluated for astaxanthin in situ delivery in the stressed environment. The feasibility of using these systems in the local treatment of ischemia/reperfusion injury was evaluated as a proof of concept. PVA/Dextran patches showed good in vitro compatibility, high mechanical and stability properties, while preserving CD-A antioxidant capabilities, also the path suturability to the cardiac muscle and the in vivo biocompatibility were studied. The second system based on pullulan/dextran scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo in an ischemic/reperfusion model at different implantation periods. Results showed an inner body defense mechanism to foreign materials. Additionally, the Nrf2 translocation could indicate a protective effect of CD-A in treated tissues. This manuscript provides a support evidence of the therapeutic potential of CD astaxanthin delivery system, to act against oxidative stress linked to cardiovascular conditions.
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Marisol Zuluaga Tamayo. Hydrophilic Antioxydant Systems for Cardiovascular Applications : Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. Bioengineering. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCD041⟩. ⟨tel-02303035⟩

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