Rôle dimorphique du récepteur nucléaire CAR dans la régulation de l'homéostasie énergétique et des perturbations métaboliques induites par un mélange de pesticides

Abstract : The incidence of metabolic diseases has steadily increased in recent decades reaching epidemic proportions. It is conventionally accepted that their main cause is related to a diet rich in fats and sugar and/or a sedentary lifestyle that can be aggravated by certain genetic polymorphisms. Chemical contaminants in our environment are also suspected to contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders by disrupting the energy balance of organisms. Several studies report the role of nuclear receptors as mediators of these metabolic effects induced by environmental contaminants. As part of this PhD work, we investigated the role of the CAR nuclear receptor in the regulation of energy homeostasis and as a mediator of the metabolic effects induced by exposure to a mixture of pesticides. CAR is a key nuclear receptor for the detoxification system of compounds, whether exogenous or endogenous. Its role in energy metabolism has been studied mainly in male mice, but metabolic and detoxification functions are highly dependent on sex. The first objective of this work was to evaluate the consequences on the energy homeostasis of the deletion of the CAR nuclear receptor in male and female mice. These animals were followed over a period of more than one year and their phenotype was compared to that of non-invalidated mice for this receptor. The results show that the absence of CAR is very deleterious in males that develop obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis. CAR-/- females mice are protected from these disorders and even have better glucose tolerance. This protection is lifted by ovariectomy of these females suggesting a role of female sex hormones in their protection. Transcriptomic, metabolomic and lipidomic analysis are in agreement with this phenotypic change. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo metabolic consequences of chronic exposure to a mixture of pesticides present in the diet at presumed non-toxic doses. After one year of exposure to this mixture, male mice developed an overweight with an increase in their fat masses. This overweight was accompanied by glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. On the other hand, female mice showed fasting hyperglycemia, hepatic oxidative stress and a disturbance of urinary microbiota related to the intestinal microbiota. These results show for the first time an obesogenic and diabetogenic sex-dependent effect of exposure to a mixture of pesticides. We have also demonstrated a role of the CAR nuclear receptor in the sexual dimorphism observed following this exposure. All of this work provides causal links in favor of a relationship between environmental contaminants and sex-dependent health and a role of the nuclear receptor CAR in the effects observed. This raises the issue of gender and mixture in the risk assessment linked to exposure to environmental contaminants.
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Céline Lukowicz. Rôle dimorphique du récepteur nucléaire CAR dans la régulation de l'homéostasie énergétique et des perturbations métaboliques induites par un mélange de pesticides. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30203⟩. ⟨tel-02302700⟩

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