Essais sur les transferts de fonds et la variabilité climatique au Burkina Faso

Abstract : Environmental and climate issues constitute a predominant and much up to date topic in international discussions. It is broadly recognized that developing countries are the most vulnerable when it comes to climate issues, albeit, they are the least responsible. Finding ways for households’ of these countries to cope with the harmful effects of climate goes through the necessity to identify mechanisms that can help, such as migration and remittances. The latter have been found in the scientific literature to be a hedge against several shocks such as natural disasters, conflicts, and economic shocks.This research thesis explores the theme of remittances, and climate variability in developing countries, by focusing on a sub-Saharan African country, Burkina Faso. Compared to its neighbouring countries, Burkina Faso has not been subject to much research in the migration and remittances. The country however has a vast migration history that is worth studying. Climate issues are also rampant, and very important, as the country is practising subsistence agriculture. The findings of this dissertation show that remittances have a positive impact on households’ ability to cope with the negative effects of climate issues. Yet these important sources of inflows for developing countries might have some limitations. The first chapter assesses the impact of remittances and climate variability on the food security of households in Burkina Faso. We build a food security index using principal component analysis that encompasses the accessibility and utilization dimensions of the concept. We also compute an inter-annual rainfall index and the latter is found to have a negative impact on food security. After controlling for potential endogeneity issues using distance variables and migrant characteristics as instruments, remittances are found to enhance food security. Results are robust to alternative measures of food security and alternative calculations of rainfall variability. In Chapter two, we assess the impact of remittances and natural disasters on poverty in Burkina Faso. To do so, we construct a poverty index using household’s housing characteristics and Multiple Correspondence Analysis method. Propensity score matching method is used as an empirical strategy, and results show that remittances have a negative impact on poverty. Another important result is that remittances have a higher impact on the resilience of households, when they have experienced disasters in the past. Therefore, when it comes to natural disasters, these inflows act as an important tool for populations to be more resilient. Lastly in chapter 3, we assess the role of remittances and drought on diversification strategies of farm-households. This chapter uses the same database as chapter two, and also takes advantage of the climate database of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of Anglia . Results show that remittances by themselves are not sufficient to push households towards costly diversification strategies, and they need to be conditional to households’ wealth status to be effective. Climate conditions as well as soil properties have not surprisingly been found to significantly push households towards diversifying their income.This research sheds light on the undeniable importance of remittances in helping households to cope with harmful effects of climate, but also on its limitations. International and national policies that will contribute in a more efficient and less costly conveying of these inflows are to encourage. However in order for remittances to be efficient, reducing inequalities and poverty within populations is a necessity. Otherwise, they can contribute to dig further poverty gaps and extensively the vulnerably levels inside populations. Therefore, remittances should be seen as complementary to other sources of income, rather than substitute.
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Tebkieta Alexandra Tapsoba. Essais sur les transferts de fonds et la variabilité climatique au Burkina Faso. Economies et finances. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAD026⟩. ⟨tel-02301994⟩

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