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Gestion participative de la diversité cultivée et création de mélanges diversifiés de blé tendre à la ferme

Abstract : The transition from a diversified agriculture to a productivist system has led to a decline in cultivated diversity and raises many environmental, societal and health issues. Alternatives such as agro-ecology have emerged, based in particular on the enhancement of agro-biodiversity and genetic diversity within agro-ecosystems. Considering that there are no varieties adapted to their needs in the catalogue, farmers and facilitators from the Réseau Semences Paysannes (RSP) have been conducting a participatory breeding project (PPB) for bread wheat since 2006, in collaboration with the DEAP (Diversity, Evolution and Adaptation of Populations) team at UMR GQE Le Moulon. These farmers are mobilizing diversity to select populations adapted to their practices, terroir and outlets, with the aim of regaining their seed autonomy and a coherence of their system. My thesis focuses on the study of the impacts of collective management and peasant selection practices on wheat crop diversity and population adaptation. It aims to propose possible adaptation of existing PPB practices and to support the implementation of new projects. The impacts of on-farm creation and selection practices of population mixtures on their agronomic and morphological behaviour were evaluated through an experiment in collaboration with about fifteen farmers and facilitators from the RSP. In a second part we studied the impacts of natural selection and peasant selection on the evolution of populations, their stability and adaptation to environments during the wheat PPB project. Then a prospective study on the impacts of the adoption of heterogeneous varieties on cultivated diversity at the landscape level was conducted, by assessing the diversity of populations from PPB, simulating adoption of heterogeneous varieties scenarii and using cultivated diversity indicators. Finally, the impacts of the on-farm experimental design parameters on the adjustment and accuracy of estimates from Bayesian models were assessed, to improve our ability to detect significant differences between populations and to provide recommendations for other decentralized variety evaluation projects using the designs and models developed in the French wheat PPB project.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 1, 2019 - 1:06:13 AM
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Gaëlle van Frank. Gestion participative de la diversité cultivée et création de mélanges diversifiés de blé tendre à la ferme. Génétique des populations [q-bio.PE]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS525⟩. ⟨tel-02301993⟩



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