Calage en ligne d'un modèle dynamique de trafic routier pour l'estimation en temps réel des conditions de circulation

Abstract : Traffic models are of paramount importance for understanding and forecasting traffic dynamics. They represent a significant support for all the stages of traffic management. This thesis focuses on issues related to daily traffic management. For road network managers, four challenges are addressed. The speed refers to the choice of the scale of representation and formulation of the flow model. The selected model is the Lagrangian-Space LWR model. The reliability is associated to the integration of the model errors in the traffic conditions estimation process. The reactivity is described as the capacity of the method to take into account the prevailling traffic states in real time. Finally, the versatility refers to the capacity of the method parameters to evolve considering the observed traffic situations.The scientific challenges that the presented works aim are based on the four issues. The integration of the uncertainties into the flow model is a first challenge. Then, the production of operational indicators that account for the reliability of the results is discussed. Concerning the reactivity, the addressed scientific challenges are the establishment of a vehicle indexes based sequential data assimilation process and the calibration of the model's internal conditions. Finally, concerning the versatility, the associated scientific question is the online calibration of the parameters of the traffic flow model. A model for tracking the errors,assumed to be distributed following Gaussian mixtures, is developped. The error tracking is achieved thanks to an original perturbation method designed for multi-modal Gaussian mixtures. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to establish a link between the designed method's robustness and the discretization of the network, the number of modes in the Gaussian mixture and the errors on the flow model's parameters. The data assimilation process enables to propagate traffic conditions in accordance with the observed situation in case of non-calibrated demand and supply. The posterior state is calculated by means of a Bayesian inference formulation knowing the prior and observed states. Two methods for model update have been tested. Facing model inconsistencies introduced by the method of substituting \textit{prior} states by \textit{posterior} states, the update acts also on the vehicles by means of addition, deletion, advancing and delaying of the passing times. The validation of the proposed solutions is achieved on a network composed of a simple homogeneous link without discontinuity. When the parameters of the traffic flow models are not calibrated, the data assimilation alone is not able to propagate the traffic states in accordance with the observed situation. The calibration of the parameters is addressed in an opening chapter in which several research avenues are proposed to resolve this last scientific question. The works in this thesis pave the way to perspectives in both research and operational domains. Indeed, it is interesting to quantify the reinforcement brought by model centered methods to usual data centered methods for the real time estimation and the short term forecasting of traffic conditions. Furthermore, the developed methods, associated to the cited research avenues, may represent a significant intake in the daily traffic management tools.
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Aurélien Clairais. Calage en ligne d'un modèle dynamique de trafic routier pour l'estimation en temps réel des conditions de circulation. Infrastructures de transport. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSET004⟩. ⟨tel-02301763⟩

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