Récupération motrice du membre supérieur post-AVC : recherche de mesures adaptées pour l'évaluation et étude de l'efficacité de stratégies thérapeutiques

Abstract : Stroke is the leading cause of death in women and the 3rd in men, as well as the leading cause of dependency in surviving people because they have major neurological sequelae. The deficiencies are mainly functional and only 5 to 25% of patients will recover a functional upper limb. Spontaneous functional recovery, which is maximal within 3 months after the onset of stroke, is mainly underpinned by brain plasticity mechanisms. Mechanisms that can be boosted by different rehabilitation techniques, including pharmacological substances or brain stimulation techniques that are developed for this purpose. Quantifying the capacities of each patient is essential to determine the lost functions and thus propose appropriate rehabilitation protocols. Many techniques have demonstrated their evaluation potential. In particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of stroke patients performing a motor task, has made it possible to better define the temporal course of brain reorganization associated with motor recovery. In fact, fMRI measures are proposed as prognostic factors. Resting-state fMRI is increasingly being used to study changes in brain connectivity induced by the lesion or by a given therapeutic intervention. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, including Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS), in addition to being used as a rehabilitation tool, are also used as assessment tools to study the recovery and efficacy of therapies. In addition, in recent years, more and more authors have recommended the use of kinematic measurements for more objective and automatic patient assessment after stroke. This kinematic assessment, which can be carried out using rehabilitation robots, would also make it possible to differentiate the strategies implemented during post-stroke recovery. In order for the changes measured by TMS or robotic tools to correctly reveal this effectiveness, the parameters obtained must be reproducible, valid and reliable. Thus, the objective of my thesis is to study the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies on brain plasticity and in the motor recovery of the upper limb after a stroke in parallel to find the appropriate measures to best evaluate these effects. Through data obtained from six clinical protocols involving healthy subjects or stroke patients, it was possible to highlight the potential of a measurement tool and/or intervention technique to measure or even stimulate the mechanisms underlying motor recovery in stroke.
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Nabila Brihmat. Récupération motrice du membre supérieur post-AVC : recherche de mesures adaptées pour l'évaluation et étude de l'efficacité de stratégies thérapeutiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30202⟩. ⟨tel-02301641⟩

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