Caractérisation d'aptamères par électrophorèse capillaire couplée au séquençage haut-débit Illumina

Abstract : Aptamers are oligomers of small single-stranded DNA or RNA which can have strong and specific interactions with some targets when they fold into three-dimensional structures. The objective of this thesis was to complete existing studies on the use of capillary electrophoresis in order to develop a method for the selection of aptamers by CE coupled to laser induced fluorescence and Illumina high-throughput sequencing. In a first step, we developed a method of detection and separation by capillary electrophoresis coupled with the double detection UV-LEDIF of a DNA library interacting with a target: thrombin. It is a model already studied and for which two aptamers have been published. We used aptamer T29 as part of our study because it has the best affinity. Capillary Electrophoresis is a powerful analytical tool that facilitates the selection efficiency of aptamers and specifies the determination of the interaction parameters. We thus were able to determine the affinity constant KD by CE-UV-LEDIF on the basic model: thrombin. Moreover, we also show how the use of Tris buffer can degrade single-stranded DNA during capillary electrophoresis and we propose as an alternative the use of a dibasic sodium phosphate buffer which avoids the phenomenon of degradation. Finally, we explain the difficulty of amplification by qPCR and PCR of an aptamer such as T29 with a G-quadruplex structure. We showed that the Illumina high-throughput sequencing allowed us to find a correlation between the number of sequenced molecules and the number of sequences obtained. Analysis of the sequences obtained shows a significant amount (20%) of T29 sequences which do not correspond to the sequence of this aptamer. This shows that the PCR and high-throughput sequencing steps for the detection of G-quadruplex can induce bias in the identification of these molecules.
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Audrey Marie Amélie Ric. Caractérisation d'aptamères par électrophorèse capillaire couplée au séquençage haut-débit Illumina. Chimie organique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30388⟩. ⟨tel-02301523⟩

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