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Interannual variability of the rainfall regime and strong ENSO events along the Peruvian Pacific Basin : large-scale control mechanisms

Abstract : Four strong El Niño events took place within the last five decades (1972/1973, 1982/1983, 1997/1998 and 2015/2016) recorded as strong in the Niño 3.4 region. They can exhibit significant differences in their evolution associated with a distinct rainfall anomaly evolution along the PPB (Peruvian Pacific Basin), which illustrates the strong nonlinearity of the ENSO teleconnection on the rainfall in this area. These extreme rainfalls have harmful impacts on the population and productive sectors due to floods and landslides which are trigged by them. Yet the key climatic circulation pattern for their different evolution and magnitude are still unknown. Here we show that different rainfall patterns during these events are associated with moisture transport originated from different large-scale moisture sources. For example, in the 1983 -1998 (2016) events appear as related with strong (weak to moderate) moisture coming from the Pacific warming (also coming from Atlantic Ocean through the Amazon basin). Characteristic of these moisture transports is due to an atmospheric response opposite between the 1983-1998 events (that are similar) and 2016 event experiencing out-of-phase moisture transport patterns. Although these rainfalls are linked to the moisture arrival from those sources, the moisture amount entering the PPB can be also influenced by regional atmospheric circulation of upper level winds (100 to 300 hPa) leading to different enhanced moisture transport associated with different rainfall anomalies in the North-Centre PPB. The interplay of large-scale and regional circulation and Pacific moisture transport explains the Ep mode associated with rainfall in the north-Centre PPB. The high dispersion of rainfall in highlands (Cp mode) during the moderate (extremes) El Niño appears as linked to low-middle (high level) moisture transport from the Amazon (Pacific) reaching highlands.
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Janeet Margarita Sanabria. Interannual variability of the rainfall regime and strong ENSO events along the Peruvian Pacific Basin : large-scale control mechanisms. Meteorology. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30143⟩. ⟨tel-02301101⟩



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