Sélection de souches fongiques performantes dans la biosorption de 3 éléments traces métalliques (Cd, Cu et Pb) et étude de leur spéciation minéralogique en microcosme de sol

Abstract : Soil contaminations by trace metals are the second most frequent contamination in the world, counting more than 5 million polluted sites. This contamination represents a risk for the environment, the economy, the agriculture and the public health. Cd, Cu, and Pb are among the most frequent and/or toxic elements of this contamination. The hardly predictable behavior of trace metals in the soil matrix turn the remediation methods into a complex issue. Biological methods could be an economic, eco-friendly, and efficient alternative. The potential of the Fungi is more and more studied in this field.Our work aim is to evaluate the tolerance and the biosorption abilities of 28 fungi isolated from polluted soils, and to select the most efficient ones to perform microcosm's experiments of polluted soils. Thus, 3 fungal isolates have been selected. Absidia cylindrospora tolerates 1000 mg.L-1 in agar medium and biosorbs more than 50% of Cd and Pb after 3 days in liquid medium. Coprinellus micaceus biosorbs 100% of Pb in liquid medium. Finally, Chaetomium atrobrunneum biosorbs more than 50% of each metals after 3 days of exposure in liquid medium.The microcosm's experiments reveal that the colonization abilities of the isolates is crucial to enhance the influence of the fungal development on the potentially mobile metal fraction. Thus, A. cylindrospora shows the best potential among the tested isolates in bioaugmented microcosms in order to decrease the potentially mobile fraction of the metals. After 20 days, this isolate decrease the potentially mobile fraction of Cd and Cu respectively by 5 and 7%. Complementary experiments are needed to improve the process (longer experiment, higher fungal biomass) and to better understand the transfers of the metals in presence of fungal organisms.
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Quentin Albert. Sélection de souches fongiques performantes dans la biosorption de 3 éléments traces métalliques (Cd, Cu et Pb) et étude de leur spéciation minéralogique en microcosme de sol. Mycologie. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMC202⟩. ⟨tel-02299471⟩

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