Inhomogeneous Relativistic Cosmology : nonperturbative models and spatial averaging of the Einstein equations

Abstract : In the standard model of cosmology, the global dynamics of the Universe is modelled via a highly symmetric background spacetime with homogeneous and isotropic spatial sections. The coupling of the homogeneous fluid sources to the overall expansion is then determined by the Einstein equations of General Relativity. In addition, the formation of inhomogeneous matter structures is described either via a relativistic perturbation scheme assuming small deviations of all fields to the prescribed homogeneous background, or using Newtonian dynamics within the same expanding background, depending on the scale and epoch. However, the interpretation of observations within this model calls for an unexpectedly accelerated expansion requiring a poorly-understood `Dark Energy' component, in addition to Dark Matter. Inhomogeneous cosmology aims at relaxing the restrictions of these models on the geometry and sources while staying within the framework of General Relativity. It can allow, in particular, for an improved modelling of the formation of structures accounting for strong deviations from homogeneity in the matter distribution and the geometry. It can also study the dynamical consequences, or backreaction effects, of the development of such inhomogeneities on the expansion of larger scales. Such a backreaction may then reproduce, at least partially, the behaviours attributed to Dark Energy or Dark Matter. During my PhD under the direction of Thomas Buchert, I have been working on several analytical aspects of general-relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology. I present below the results of collaborations in which I played a major role in the context of the PhD. I first focussed on the expression of a relativistic Lagrangian approximation scheme for the description of the local dynamics of structures up to a nonlinear regime in irrotational perfect barotropic fluids. I then considered the effective description of inhomogeneous fluids with vorticity and a general energy-momentum tensor in terms of two possible schemes of spatial averaging. These schemes are applicable to any choice of spatial hypersurfaces of averaging, providing for each choice a set of effective evolution equations, featuring several backreaction terms, for an averaging region comoving with the sources. This allows for a qualitative discussion of the dependence of the average equations and backreactions on the foliation choice. I also studied the rewriting of such averaging schemes and evolution equations under a unified and manifestly 4-covariant form. This latter result will allow for a more explicit investigation of foliation dependence
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Pierre Mourier. Inhomogeneous Relativistic Cosmology : nonperturbative models and spatial averaging of the Einstein equations. Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics [astro-ph.CO]. Université de Lyon, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1116⟩. ⟨tel-02299373⟩

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