Persistance de bactéries entériques antibiorésistantes ou pathogénes sur des végétaux de consommation humaine ( modèle la laitue )

Abstract : In recent years, foodborne diseases caused by fresh products contaminated, such as lettuce, with enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli-or STEC-) increasingly. The presence of these bacteria in this unusual environment is a major emerging health risk, especially since enteric bacteria, whether pathogenic or not, are frequently resistant to antibiotics. To study the persistence of antibiotic-resistant or pathogenic bacteria on lettuce, the characterization of resistance plasmids carried by E. coli strains from contaminated aquatic environments was carried out in order to study their potential involvement in adhesion of host strains on different varieties of lettuce. The study of the survival and adhesion of environmental and laboratory E. coli strains, transformed with the plasmids of interest, on young lettuce plants allowed to highlight three points: 1) more time contact between bacteria and leaves increases and less bacterial survival is important; 2) there is a difference in survival and adhesion depending on the varieties of lettuce studied; 3) there is a difference in survival and adhesion between laboratory strains and environmental strains, the latter being in better metabolic state and showing greater adhesion during the 11-12 days of experimentation. After the persistence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains under controlled conditions, field studies on 4 Normandy vegetable farms, with different technical itineraries, were carried out. The search for enteric pathogens, Salmonella and STEC, was carried out on lettuce and a search for E. coli, a control of fecal contamination, was realized on the lettuce as well as in the irrigation water of one of the sites. The results reveal a satisfactory microbiological quality of the agricultural plots studied (according to the European decree N ° 2073/2005) although E. coli strains were regularly found at the lettuce level, including some antibiotic resistant. Analysis of the irrigation water showed the continued presence of E. coli strains, including strains with common antimicrobial resistance profiles to those found on lettuce, showing that irrigation water is one of the critical sources of plant contamination in the field.
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Mathilde Camiade. Persistance de bactéries entériques antibiorésistantes ou pathogénes sur des végétaux de consommation humaine ( modèle la laitue ). Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMR032⟩. ⟨tel-02299369⟩

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