Imagerie computationnelle active et passive à l’aide d’une cavité chaotique micro-ondes

Abstract : The broad topic of the presented Ph.D focuses on active and passive microwave computational imaging. The use of a chaotic cavity as a compressive component is studied both theoretically (mathematical model, algorithmic resolution of the inverse problem) and experimentally. The underlying idea is to replace an array of antennas with a single reverberant cavity with an array of openings on the front panel that encodes the spatial information of a scene in the temporal response of the cavity. The reverberation of electromagnetic waves inside the cavity provides the degrees of freedom necessary to reconstruct an image of the scene. Thus it is possible to create a high-resolution image of a scene in real time from a single impulse response. Applications include security or imaging through walls. In this work, the design and characterization of an open chaotic cavity is performed. Using this device, active computational imaging is demonstrated to produce images of targets of various shapes. The number of degrees of freedom is further improved by changing the boundary conditions with the addition of commercial fluorescent lamps. The interaction of the waves with these plasma elements allows new cavity configurations to be created, thus improving image resolution. Compressive imaging is next applied to the passive detection and localization of natural thermal radiation from noise sources, based on the correlation of signals received over two channels. Finally, an innovative method of interferometric target imaging is presented. It is based on the reconstruction of the impulse response between two antennas from the microwave thermal noise emitted by a network of neon lamps. This work constitutes a step towards for future imaging systems.
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Ariel Christopher Tondo Yoya. Imagerie computationnelle active et passive à l’aide d’une cavité chaotique micro-ondes. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1S130⟩. ⟨tel-02299060⟩

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