Microstructure and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics from the MgO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ system for ballistic protection

Abstract : In situ experiments were conducted on a glass dubbed 75-25, of the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MAS) system, using TiO2 as the main nucleating agent, in order to examine the evolution of Young’s modulus (E), shear modulus (G) and Poisson's ratio, and the sequence of the crystalline phases formed during a double-stage heat treatment. The effects of crystallization on hardness and fracture toughness were also examined. High temperature X-ray diffraction experiments revealed the presence of spinel (MgO.Al2O3), rutile (TiO2), karooite (MgO.2TiO2), sillimanite (Al2O3.SiO2) and sapphirine (4MgO.5Al2O3.2SiO2) after crystallization. The elastic and shear moduli of the glass-ceramics (GC) were approximately 20% larger than those of the parent glass. Hardness values were close to 10 GPa and KIC close to 1.2 MPa.m1/2. Aiming to obtain transparent and colorless GC, new formulations, dubbed ZT1B4, 75-25/ZT and 75-25/25Ti, with lower titania content and higher zirconia content, were proposed and crystallized. Formulation ZT1B4 yielded a transparent GC with hardness of up to 8 GPa and an indentation fracture toughness (IFT) about 40% higher than that of the parent glass. Formulations 75-25/ZT and 75-25/25Ti yielded transparent GC with hardness values of up to 9 GPa and an IFT up to 35% higher than that of the parent glass. A series of glasses were also melted using metallic Ag as nucleating agent instead of ZrO2 and TiO2. The applied heat treatments generated non-homogeneous GC, which became warped due to the high crystallization temperatures. These new precursor glasses were therefore discarded. Transmittance in the ultraviolet to visible range was measured in the glass and GC samples of formulations 75-25, 75-25/ZT and 75-25/25Ti. Formulation 75-25/ZT presented the highest transmittance in both glass and GC states. It was concluded that among the new compositions, formulation 75-25/ZT is the most suitable one for use as ballistic protection when transparency to visible light is required.
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Leonardo Sant'Ana- Gallo. Microstructure and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics from the MgO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ system for ballistic protection. Material chemistry. Université Rennes 1; Universidade federal de São Carlos, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016REN1S063⟩. ⟨tel-02298574⟩

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