, To do so, we need to move away from the design rules of standard QWIPs. Thanks to a more precise comprehension of the generation of photocurrent from polaritonic states we envision three new detector designs: ? The first one would be based on a bound-to-bound QWIP with the excited state half a Rabi energy below the top of the barrier (? 7meV ), fact, to improve the performance of a SC-QWIP the design of the quantum well has to be reconsidered to correspond to the properties of the polaritons

, ? The second detector would be based on a quantum cascade detector (QC Ref

L. Esaki and R. Tsu, Superlattice and negative differential conductivity in semiconductors, IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol.14, issue.1, pp.61-65, 1970.

D. Dini, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, G. Biasiol, and L. Sorba, Microcavity polariton splitting of intersubband transitions, Physical Review Letters, vol.90, p.116401, 2003.

A. Liu, Rabi splitting of the optical intersubband absorption line of multiple quantum wellsinside a Fabry-Pérot microcavity, Physical Review B, vol.55, issue.11, p.7101, 1997.

L. Sapienza, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, C. Ciuti, Y. Chassagneux et al., Electrically injected cavity polaritons, Physical Review Letters, vol.100, issue.13, p.136806, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00174731

P. Jouy, A. Vasanelli, Y. Todorov, L. Sapienza, R. Colombelli et al., Intersubband electroluminescent devices operating in the strong-coupling regime, Physical Review B -Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.82, issue.4, pp.1-11, 2010.

E. Dupont, H. C. Liu, A. J. Springthorpe, W. Lai, and M. Extavour, Vacuum-field Rabi splitting in quantum-well infrared photodetectors, Physical Review B -Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.68, issue.24, pp.1-9, 2003.

L. Sapienza, A. Vasanelli, C. Ciuti, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori et al., Photovoltaic probe of cavity polaritons in a quantum cascade structure, Applied Physics Letters, vol.90, issue.20, p.201101, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00135292

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol et al., Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction, Nature, vol.458, issue.7235, p.178, 2009.

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field, Physical Review B, vol.72, p.115303, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00004617

Y. Todorov, A. M. Andrews, R. Colombelli, S. De-liberato, C. Ciuti et al., Ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime with polariton dots, Physical Review Letters, vol.105, issue.19, p.196402, 2010.

S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, R. Degl'innocenti, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Intersubband polaritons in a one-dimensional surface plasmon photonic crystal, Applied Physics Letters, vol.97, issue.23, p.231123, 2010.

J. Manceau, S. Zanotto, T. Ongarello, L. Sorba, A. Tredicucci et al., Mid-infrared intersubband polaritons in dispersive metal-insulatormetal resonators, Applied Physics Letters, vol.105, issue.8, p.81105, 2014.

P. Laffaille, J. Manceau, T. Laurent, A. Bousseksou, L. L. Gratiet et al., Intersubband polaritons at ? ? 2 µm in the InAs/AlSb system, Applied Physics Letters, vol.112, issue.20, p.201113, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02067192

J. Manceau, N. Tran, G. Biasiol, T. Laurent, I. Sagnes et al., Resonant intersubband polariton-lo phonon scattering in an optically pumped polaritonic device, Applied Physics Letters, vol.112, issue.19, p.191106, 2018.

P. Vigneron, N. Tran, S. Pirotta, J. Manceau, A. Bousseksou et al., Quantum well infrared photo-detectors operating in the strong light-matter coupling regime, Applied Physics Letters, 2019.

M. Tonouchi, Cutting-edge terahertz technology, Nature Photonics, vol.1, issue.2, p.97, 2007.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean et al., Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers, Electronics Letters, vol.50, issue.4, pp.309-311, 2014.

B. Paulillo, S. Pirotta, H. Nong, P. Crozat, S. Guilet et al., Ultrafast terahertz detectors based on three-dimensional meta-atoms, Optica, vol.4, issue.12, pp.1451-1456, 2017.

M. Geiser, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Room temperature terahertz polariton emitter, Applied Physics Letters, vol.101, issue.14, 2012.

B. Paulillo, J. M. Manceau, L. H. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield et al., Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz metaatoms, Applied Physics Letters, vol.108, issue.10, 2016.

S. De-liberato, C. Ciuti, and C. C. Phillips, Terahertz lasing from intersubband polariton-polariton scattering in asymmetric quantum wells, Physical Review B -Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.87, issue.24, pp.1-5, 2013.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson et al., Quantum cascade laser, Science, vol.264, issue.5158, pp.553-556, 1994.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00156810

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield et al., Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser, Nature, vol.417, issue.6885, p.156, 2002.

M. Brandstetter, C. Deutsch, M. Krall, H. Detz, D. C. Macfarland et al., High power terahertz quantum cascade lasers with symmetric wafer bonded active regions, Applied Physics Letters, vol.103, issue.17, p.171113, 2013.

A. Mottaghizadeh, D. Gacemi, P. Laffaille, H. Li, M. Amanti et al., 5-ps-long terahertz pulses from an active-mode-locked quantum cascade laser, Optica, vol.4, issue.1, pp.168-171, 2017.

F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver et al., Short terahertz pulse generation from a dispersion compensated modelocked semiconductor laser, Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol.11, issue.4, p.1700013, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01564000

F. Wang, H. Nong, T. Fobbe, V. Pistore, S. Houver et al., Short Terahertz Pulse Generation from a Dispersion Compensated Modelocked Semiconductor Laser, Laser and Photonics Reviews, vol.11, issue.4, pp.1-9, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01564000

P. Vigneron, F. Joint, N. Isac, R. Colombelli, and E. Herth, Advanced and reliable GaAs/AlGaAs ICP-DRIE etching for optoelectronic, microelectronic and microsystem applications, Microelectronic Engineering, vol.202, pp.42-50, 2018.

E. O. Kane, The semi-empirical approach to band structure, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol.8, pp.38-44, 1959.

L. West and S. Eglash, First observation of an extremely large-dipole infrared transition within the conduction band of a gaas quantum well, Applied Physics Letters, vol.46, issue.12, pp.1156-1158, 1985.

H. Liu and F. Capasso, Intersubband transitions in quantum wells: Physics and device applications, vol.5, 1999.

A. , Many-body enhancement of the light-matter interaction, 2012.

M. Helm, Long wavelength infrared emitters based on quantum wells and superlattices, vol.6, 2000.

M. Fox, Optical properties of solids, 2002.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Author and Subject Indices for Volumes I, II, and III, 1998.

M. Zaluzny and C. Nalewajko, Coupling of infrared radiation to intersubband transitions in multiple quantum wells: The effective-medium approach, Physical Review B, vol.59, pp.13-043, 1999.

T. Ando, A. B. Fowler, and F. Stern, Electronic properties of two-dimensional systems, Rev. Mod. Phys, vol.54, pp.437-672, 1982.

D. M. Pozar, Microwave engineering, 2009.

F. Marsault, Manipulation optique de condensats de polaritons des microstructures semiconductrices, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01531581

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, 2011.

Y. Todorov, L. Tosetto, J. Teissier, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang et al., Optical properties of metal-dielectric-metal microcavities in the THz frequency range, Optics Express, vol.18, issue.13, pp.13-886, 2010.

R. C. Rumpf, Mooc: Formulation of rigorous coupled-wave analysis

D. Whittaker and I. Culshaw, Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures, Physical Review B, vol.60, issue.4, p.2610, 1999.

L. Li, Use of fourier series in the analysis of discontinuous periodic structures, JOSA A, vol.13, issue.9, pp.1870-1876, 1996.

S. Zanotto, Mathlab: Periodically patterned multi layer

E. T. Jaynes and F. W. Cummings, Comparison of quantum and semiclassical radiation theories with application to the beam maser, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.51, issue.1, pp.89-109, 1963.

V. Savona, C. Piermarocchi, A. Quattropani, P. Schwendimann, and F. Tassone, Optical properties of microcavity polaritons, Phase Transitions, vol.68, issue.1, pp.169-279, 1999.

J. J. Hopfield, Theory of the contribution of excitons to the complex dielectric constant of crystals, Physical Review, vol.112, pp.1555-1567, 1958.

J. M. Raimond, M. Brune, and S. Haroche, Manipulating quantum entanglement with atoms and photons in a cavity, Rev. Mod. Phys, vol.73, pp.565-582, 2001.

S. De-liberato and C. Ciuti, Quantum theory of electron tunneling into intersubband cavity polariton states, Physical Review B, vol.79, issue.7, p.75317, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00259601

D. Chastanet, J. M. Manceau, T. Laurent, A. Bousseksou, G. Beaudoin et al., Surface emitting thermally assisted polaritonic light-emitting device, Applied Physics Letters, vol.110, issue.8, 2017.

S. Zanotto, Intersubband polaritons in photonic crystal cavities, Thesis, Scuola Normale Superiore, 2014.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics, 1984.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system, Physical review letters, vol.85, issue.1, p.74, 2000.

E. Purcell, Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies, Phys. Rev, vol.69, p.681, 1946.

P. Jouy, Y. Todorov, A. Vasanelli, R. Colombelli, I. Sagnes et al., Coupling of a surface plasmon with localized subwavelength microcavity modes, Applied Physics Letters, vol.98, issue.2, p.21105, 2011.

C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, and R. Colombelli, Wave engineering with thz quantum cascade lasers, Nature Photonics, vol.7, issue.9, p.691, 2013.

S. De-liberato and C. Ciuti, Stimulated scattering and lasing of intersubband cavity polaritons, Physical Review Letters, vol.102, issue.13, pp.1-4, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00287084

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons, Science, vol.298, issue.5591, pp.199-202, 2002.

R. Colombelli and J. Manceau, Perspectives for intersubband polariton lasers, Physical Review X, vol.5, issue.1, p.11031, 2015.

J. Manceau, G. Biasiol, N. Tran, I. Carusotto, and R. Colombelli, Immunity of intersubband polaritons to inhomogeneous broadening, Physical Review B, vol.96, issue.23, p.235301, 2017.

Y. Todorov, L. Tosetto, A. Delteil, A. Vasanelli, C. Sirtori et al., Polaritonic spectroscopy of intersubband transitions, Physical Review B, vol.86, issue.12, p.125314, 2012.

B. C. Smith, Fundamentals of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 2011.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2002.

P. Savvidis, J. Baumberg, R. Stevenson, M. Skolnick, D. Whittaker et al., Angle-resonant stimulated polariton amplifier, Physical review letters, vol.84, issue.7, p.1547, 2000.

C. Ciuti, P. Schwendimann, and A. Quattropani, Theory of polariton parametric interactions in semiconductor microcavities, Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol.18, issue.10, p.279, 2003.

L. Nguyen-thê, S. De-liberato, M. Bamba, and C. Ciuti, Effective polariton-polariton interactions of cavity-embedded two-dimensional electron gases, Physical Review B, vol.87, p.235322, 2013.

J. Nespolo and I. Carusotto, A generalized gross-pitaevskii model for intersubband polariton lasing, 2019.

M. Massaouti, J. Manceau, A. Selimis, and S. Tzortzakis, An intense tunable femtosecond gas-plasma THz source: Application in spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Journal of Molecular Structure, vol.1006, issue.1-3, pp.28-33, 2011.

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. Martin, and A. Migus, Generation of ultrabroadband femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared by optical rectification of 15 fs light pulses at 100 MHz repetition rate, Applied Physics Letters, vol.67, issue.20, pp.2907-2909, 1995.

Y. Shen, P. Upadhya, E. Linfield, H. Beere, and A. Davies, Terahertz generation from coherent optical phonons in a biased GaAs photoconductive emitter, Physical Review B, vol.69, issue.23, p.235325, 2004.

F. Wang, Ultrafast terahertz pulse generation from quantum cascade lasers
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01530907

V. I. Paris, , 2016.

Y. Lee, Principles of terahertz science and technology, vol.170, 2009.

J. Coutaz and O. Térahertz, , 2012.

E. Rosencher, B. Vinter, and O. , , 2002.

S. Zanotto, F. Bianco, L. Sorba, G. Biasiol, and A. Tredicucci, Saturation and bistability of defect-mode intersubband polaritons, Physical Review B, vol.91, issue.8, p.85308, 2015.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri et al., Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser, Nature Communications, vol.1, p.69, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00659830

O. Svelto and D. C. Hanna, Principles of lasers, vol.4, 1998.

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, J. Faist et al., Dispersion in a broadband terahertz quantum cascade laser, Applied Physics Letters, vol.109, issue.22, p.221107, 2016.

G. Villares, S. Riedi, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess et al., Dispersion engineering of quantum cascade laser frequency combs, Optica, vol.3, issue.3, pp.252-258, 2016.

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser, Nature Photonics, vol.3, issue.10, p.586, 2009.

Y. Chassagneux, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, S. Barbieri, S. Dhillon et al., Low threshold THz QC lasers with thin core regions, Electronics Letters, vol.43, issue.5, pp.41-42, 2007.

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, W. S. Hobson, and A. P. Kinsella, Reactive ion etching of GaAs, AlGaAs, and GaSb in Cl 2 and SiCl 4, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics Processing and Phenomena, vol.8, issue.4, pp.607-617, 1990.

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, and W. S. Hobson, Reactive ion etching induced damage in GaAs and AlGaAs using C 2 H 6 /H 2 /Ar or CCl 2 F 2 /O 2 gas mixtures, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.66, issue.5, pp.2061-2064, 1989.

S. W. Pang, G. A. Lincoln, R. W. Mcclelland, P. D. Degraff, M. W. Geis et al., Effects of dry etching on GaAs, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics Processing and Phenomena, vol.1, issue.4, pp.1334-1337, 1983.

G. Franz, W. Hösler, and R. Treichler, Sidewall passivation of GaAs in BCl3-containing atmospheres, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures Processing, vol.19, pp.415-419, 2001.

L. Jalabert, P. Dubreuil, F. Carcenac, S. Pinaud, L. Salvagnac et al., High aspect ratio GaAs nanowires made by ICP-RIE etching using Cl2/N2 chemistry, Microelectronic Engineering, vol.85, issue.5, pp.1173-1178, 2008.

A. Larrue, D. Belharet, P. Dubreuil, S. Bonnefont, O. Gauthier-lafaye et al., Inductively coupled plasma etching of high aspect ratio two-dimensional photonic crystals in Al-rich AlGaAs and AlGaAsSb, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena, vol.29, issue.2, p.21006, 2011.

G. Xu, L. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies et al., Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range, Applied Physics Letters, vol.104, issue.9, p.91112, 2014.

K. A. Atlasov, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, Effect of sidewall passivation in BCl 3 /n 2 inductively coupled plasma etching of two-dimensional gaas photonic crystals, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, vol.27, issue.5, p.21, 2009.

Y. Chen, B. S. Ooi, G. I. Ng, C. L. Tan, and Y. C. Chan, Dry plasma etching of GaAs vias using BCl 3 /Ar and Cl 2 /Ar plasmas, International Society for Optics and Photonics, vol.3896, pp.199-207, 1999.

G. T. Edwards, A. Sobiesierski, D. I. Westwood, and P. M. Smowton, Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio, sub-micron gratings in AlGaInP/GaAs laser structures using a BCl 3 /Cl 2 /Ar inductively coupled plasma, Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol.22, issue.9, p.1010, 2007.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. Chan, Z. Wasilewski, S. Laframboise et al., Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ?200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling, Optics express, vol.20, issue.4, pp.3866-3876, 2012.

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders et al., Lowvoltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions, Electronics Letters, vol.45, issue.20, pp.1030-1031, 2009.

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab et al., Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression, Applied Physics Letters, vol.92, issue.3, 2006.

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, M. J. Süess, M. Beck, K. Unterrainer et al., Short pulse generation and mode control of broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers, Optica, vol.3, issue.10, pp.1087-1094, 2016.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. Beere et al., Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions, Nature, vol.457, issue.7226, p.174, 2009.

D. Bachmann, M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. J. Süess, M. Beck et al., Pulse generation and spectral optimization of broadband terahertz quantum cascade lasers, 41st International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMW-THz), pp.1-2, 2016.

R. E. Williams, Modern GaAs processing methods, 1990.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin et al., Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning, Physical Review A, vol.77, issue.5, p.53804, 2008.

H. Schneider and H. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01810815

M. Kane, S. Millidge, M. Emeny, D. Lee, D. Guy et al., Intersubband transitions in quantum wells, pp.31-41, 1992.

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-mohamed, M. Tauvy, A. Nedelcu, V. Berger et al., Ultimate performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors in the tunneling regime, Infrared Physics & Technology, vol.52, issue.4, pp.132-137, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01438626

R. H. Kingston, Detection of optical and infrared radiation, vol.10, 2013.

A. Rose, Concepts in photoconductivity and allied problems. Interscience publishers, 1963.

N. Sclar, Properties of doped silicon and germanium infrared detectors, Progress in Quantum Electronics, vol.9, issue.3, pp.149-257, 1984.

W. Schottky, Über spontane stromschwankungen in verschiedenen elektrizitätsleit-ern, Annalen der Physik, vol.362, issue.23, pp.541-567, 1918.

H. Liu, Noise gain and operating temperature of quantum well infrared photodetectors, Applied physics letters, vol.61, issue.22, pp.2703-2705, 1992.

A. Rogalski, Infrared Detectors, 2010.

S. Shen, Comparison and competition between MCT and QW structure material for use in IR detectors, Microelectronics Journal, vol.25, issue.8, pp.713-739, 1994.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, New 10 µm infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices, Applied Physics Letters, vol.50, issue.16, pp.1092-1094, 1987.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, C. J. Hill, S. B. Rafol et al., Development of mid-wavelength and long-wavelength megapixel portable QWIP imaging cameras, Infrared Physics and Technology, vol.47, issue.1-2, pp.67-75, 2005.

H. Liu, J. Li, E. Brown, K. Mcintosh, K. Nichols et al., Quantum well intersubband heterodyne infrared detection up to 82 GHz, Applied Physics Letters, vol.67, issue.11, pp.1594-1596, 1995.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, A. Bigioli, A. Mottaghizadeh, D. Gacemi et al., Room-temperature nine-µm-wavelength photodetectors and GHz-frequency heterodyne receivers, Nature, vol.556, issue.7699, pp.85-88, 2018.

D. Brewster, On the laws which regulate the polarisation of light by reflexion from transparent bodies, Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society, vol.105, pp.125-130, 1815.

E. Eizner, J. Brodeur, F. Barachati, A. Sridharan, and S. Kéna-cohen, Organic Photodiodes with an Extended Responsivity using Ultrastrong Light-Matter Coupling, ACS Photonics, 2018.

K. Choi, B. Levine, R. Malik, J. Walker, and C. Bethea, Periodic negative conductance by sequential resonant tunneling through an expanding high-field superlattice domain, Physical Review B, vol.35, issue.8, p.4172, 1987.

H. Schneider, P. Koidl, M. Walther, J. Fleissner, R. Rehm et al., Ten years of QWIP development at Fraunhofer IAF, Infrared Physics & Technology, vol.42, issue.3-5, pp.283-289, 2001.

D. G. Ivey, S. Eicher, S. Wingar, and T. Lester, Performance of Pd-Ge based ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol.8, issue.2, pp.63-68, 1997.

J. Thompson, S. Beaumont, A. Kean, and C. Stanley, Germanium-palladium ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs, Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol.5, issue.6, p.596, 1990.

Y. G. Wang, D. Wang, and D. G. Ivey, Thermal stability of Pd/Ge-based ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.84, issue.3, pp.1310-1315, 1998.

R. H. Fowler and L. Nordheim, Electron emission in intense electric fields, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character, vol.119, issue.781, pp.173-181, 1928.

Y. Chassagneux, Photonique pour les lasers à cascade quantique térahertz, 2009.

J. Faist, Quantum cascade lasers, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00156790

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler et al., Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity, Applied Physics Letters, vol.91, issue.12, p.121104, 2007.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer et al., External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 µm, Applied Physics Letters, vol.95, issue.6, p.61103, 2009.

A. W. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with external gratings, Optics letters, vol.35, issue.7, pp.910-912, 2010.

A. Gatesman, J. Waldman, M. Ji, C. Musante, and S. Yagvesson, An anti-reflection coating for silicon optics at terahertz frequencies, IEEE microwave and guided wave letters, vol.10, issue.7, pp.264-266, 2000.

M. Ji, C. Musante, S. Yngvesson, A. Gatesman, and J. Waldman, Study of parylene as anti-reflection coating for silicon optics at THz frequencies, International Symposium Space THz Technology, p.407, 2000.

R. Rungsawang, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, P. Cavalié, J. Madéo et al., Gain enhancement in a terahertz quantum cascade laser with parylene antireflection coatings, Applied Physics Letters, vol.98, issue.10, p.101102, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00659774

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield et al., High-performance continuous-wave operation of superlattice terahertz quantum-cascade lasers, Applied Physics Letters, vol.82, issue.10, pp.1518-1520, 2003.

A. W. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu et al., High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides, Optics letters, vol.32, issue.19, pp.2840-2842, 2007.

J. Kroll, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, Ultra-thin metallic layers studied by broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 12th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, pp.465-466, 2004.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, Metallic wave-impedance matching layers for broadband terahertz optical systems, Optics Express, vol.15, issue.11, pp.6552-6560, 2007.

L. Ding, X. Wang, N. S. Ang, C. Lu, V. Suresh et al., Ultrathin film broadband terahertz antireflection coating based on impedance matching method, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol.23, issue.4, p.8, 2017.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, Nanostructured gold films as broadband terahertz antireflection coatings, Physical Review B, vol.77, issue.19, p.195405, 2008.