Mid-Infrared Detectors and THz Devices Operating in the Strong Light-Matter Coupling Regime

Abstract : After fifteen years of intersubband polaritons development some of the peculiar properties of these quasi-particles are still unexplored. A deeper comprehension of the polaritons is needed to access their fundamental properties and assess their applicative potential as efficient emitters or detectors in the mid-infrared and THz.In this manuscript we used Metal-Insulator-Metal (MI-M) cavities with a top metal periodic grating as a platform to deepen the understanding of ISB polaritons.The advantages of M-I-M are twofold : first they confine the TM00 mode, second the dispersion of the cavity -over a large set of in-plane wave-vectors- offers various experimental configurations to observe the polaritons in both reflection and photo-current. We reexamined the properties of ISB polaritons in the mid-infrared and in the THz using these resonators. In the first part, we explore the implementation of dispersive M-I-M cavities with THz intersubband transitions. In the THz domain, the scattering mechanisms of the THz ISB polaritons need to be understood. The dispersive cavity is a major asset to study these mechanisms because it provides more degrees of freedom to the system. For this purpose, we fabricated a new experimental set-up to measure the polariton dispersion at liquid Helium temperature. After the characterization of the polaritons in reflectivity, a pump-probe experiment was performed on the polaritonic devices. The second part of this manuscript presents the implementation of M-I-M dispersive cavities with abound-to-quasi-bound quantum well infrared photo detector designed to detect in strong coupling. Beyond electrical probing of the polaritons, the strong coupling can disentangle the frequency of detection from the thermal activation energy and reduce the dark current at a given frequency. In parallel to the exploration of THz polaritons, we developed two techniques (Gires-Tournois Interferometer and Anti-reflection coating) in order to shorten the pulses of THz quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides.
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Pierre-Baptiste Vigneron. Mid-Infrared Detectors and THz Devices Operating in the Strong Light-Matter Coupling Regime. Materials Science [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS082⟩. ⟨tel-02298382⟩

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