Ecologie évolutive des limites de niche : cas de l’adaptation à la salinité de l'artémie

Abstract : Hutchinson defined the niche concept as the multidimensional space of environmental variables where the specie survives. During this work, I focused on several conceptual and operational limits of this concept. Basing our work on the adaptation to salinity of the genus Artemia – an extremophile branchipod – we studied: (i) mechanisms involved in the polymorphism maintenance in a large clonal population, which asked the question of the scaling in the use of the niche concept; (ii) impact of the gut microbiota on the adaptation to low salinities, which asked the question on the impact of biotic interactions on the niche; (iii) the effects of habitat quality and phenotypic plasticity on the tolerance to high salinities, which asked operational questions on the evaluation of theses factors and there impact on the niche. The work detailed in this manuscript is based on a large variety of methodologies and helped providing elements of answers to solve the problematic. First, we showed that the important diversity found in the large clonal population was structured by environmental variables such as salinity and temperature. Therefore, in the case of a large asexual population, the niche concept can apply to a group of genetically close individual that might share (depending on the reproduction mode) common ancestry. Then, we showed that the niche of the gut microbiota, associated with Artemia for algae digestion, constrained their host tolerance to low salinities. Thus, biotic interactions may have different effects (even conflicting sometimes) on the different axes of their host niche. Finally, we provided some methodological solutions to evaluate separately the impact of plasticity and habitat quality on the adaptation of Artemia to high salinities. In the end, we provided conceptual and/or operational solutions that strengthen the evolutionary ecology key concept of the niche.
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Odrade Nougué. Ecologie évolutive des limites de niche : cas de l’adaptation à la salinité de l'artémie. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS262⟩. ⟨tel-02297873⟩

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