Acceptation et utilisation d'outils : vers une approche cognitive

Abstract : What drives us to use a tool, and why is a tool accepted or rejected by a user? This thesis proposes to study the question of acceptability (i.e. the a priori intention to use a tool, before use) and especially of the acceptance (i.e. the decision or the intention to use a tool, after real use), from the perspective of cognitive aspects of tool use. After a review of the literature onthis subject, which lists 142 criteria of acceptance, we propose a new theoretical reading grid by classifying the criteria present in the literature in four categories of criteria: Utility, ease of use, aesthetic and a final criterion, social, contextual and individual differences. Following our theoretical part, which also explores the field of cognitive tools, the mechanisms of decision making in the use of tools and the role of metacognition, experimental results are also presented. In a first set of experiments, participants are faced with physical tools that vary according to different criteria (utility, ease of use and aesthetics). We are interested in the differences between acceptability and acceptance phases and by criteria specific to the tool which guide user representations of tools and user preferences. The results show that there is a hierarchy of criteria. In the acceptability phase, it is the ease of use criterion that has the greatest influence. On the other hand, in the acceptance phase, the criterion of utility has a greater influence, whether in terms of preference (ranking position) or time spent on the tool. Aesthetics has no influence on user choices. In a second set of experiments, we study the influence of performances for different cognitive functions in the use of tools. Participants are exposed to cognitive tools that support different cognitive functions (memory, selective visual attention,decision making). We have sought to know in which cognitive functions users prefer to be assisted, and whether these preferences are rational, i.e. whether they are related to their performance or the meta-representation of their performance in these same cognitive functions. In the results, we observe that the tool assisting the working memory is widely preferred, butthat there are user profiles, some preferring to be assisted in visual attention or decision making. This preference is based on the meta-representation of the performance, and not on the performance itself. The results show that the more the subjects feel that they are bad in a cognitive function, the more they will use a tool that assists this same cognitive function, regardless of their actual performance in this cognitive function. Finally, a general discussion studies the impact of the results obtained in this thesis. In this last part of the manuscript, we propose to reflect and conclude on the consequences and the implications of our results, and we propose perspectives and questions on the future evolutions of the questions related to the acceptance of the tool.
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Boris Alexandre. Acceptation et utilisation d'outils : vers une approche cognitive. Psychologie. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE2021⟩. ⟨tel-02297705⟩

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