Rôle de la protéine APPL dans la croissance axonale des corps pédonculés chez Drosophila melanogaster

Abstract : In the drosophila brain, mushroom bodies are involved in olfactory memory and learning. This structure is composed of different types of / neurons. These neurons form an orthogonal structure, with the branch projecting dorsally and the branch projecting medially. The aim of this study is to understand mechanisms and pathways involved during the development of these neurons.The drosophila APPL protein (Amyloïd Precursor Protein-Like) is the homologue of the human APP, known to be involved in Alzheimer’s disease. This pathology is characterized by neuronal degeneration inducing cognitive and memory defects. In spite of the numerous studies focused on the pathological function of APP during the last decades, few things are known on the physiological functions of this protein and more particularly during the development. This is from this perspective that we studied the APPL function and its interaction with proteins during the mushroom bodies development.The APPL protein was identified as a co-receptor of the PCP pathway (Planar Cell Polarity), involved in the axonal growth regulation. During the development, APPL allows the recruitment and the activation of the ABL protein (Abelson Tyrosine Kinase), which phosphorylates DSH (dishevelled) and so activates the axonal growth pathway.The first part investigates the regulation of ABL activity during the / neuron development. If it’s already established that APPL regulates positively the kinase activity of ABL, I show here that the HTT protein (Huntingtin) allows a negative regulation of ABL activity. In human, HTT is involved in the Huntington’s disease, another neurodegenerative disorder. This thesis work shows that HTT regulates the phosphorylation level of ABL, and therefore its activity.The second part investigates the interaction between APPL and ARM (armadillo), the homologue of the human -catenin, during the development of the / neurons. I show that this interaction is independent of the APPL function in the PCP pathway. Moreover, this interaction between APPL and ARM involves the actin cytoskeleton dynamic function of ARM, and not its Wnt pathway function.The third and last part presents new mutant alleles of APPL obtained with the CRISPR-CAS9 technique. The creation and analysis of these new alleles lead us to propose that vnd (ventral nervous system defective), neighbor gene of Appl, is also involved in / neurons development, and can interact genetically with Appl.
Keywords : Development Neuron Appl
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Claire Marquilly. Rôle de la protéine APPL dans la croissance axonale des corps pédonculés chez Drosophila melanogaster. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT045⟩. ⟨tel-02297318⟩

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