Contributions aux pistages mono et multi-cibles fondés sur les ensembles finis aléatoires

Abstract : Detecting and tracking maritime or ground targets is one of the application fields for surveillance by airborne radar systems. In this specific context, the goal is to estimate the trajectories of one or more moving objects over time by using noisy radar measurements. However, several constraints have to be considered in addition to the problem of estimating trajectories:1. the number of objects inside the region of interest is unknown and may change over time,2. the measurements provided by the radar can arise from the environment and do not necessarily correspond to a mobile object; the phenomenon is called false detection,3. a measurement is not always available for each object; the phenomenon is called non-detection,4. the maneuverability depends on the surface targets.Concerning the three first points, random finite set models can be considered to simultaneously estimate the number of objects and their trajectories in a Bayesian formalism. To deal with the fourth constraint, a classification of the objects to be tracked can be useful. During this PhD thesis, we developped two adaptive approaches that take into account both principles.First of all, we propose a joint target tracking and classification method dedicated to an object with the presence of false detections. Our contribution is to incorporate a filter based on a Bernoulli random finite set. The resulting algorithm combines robustness to the false detections and the ability to classify the object. This classification can exploit the estimation of a discriminating parameter such as the target length that can be deduced from a target length extent measurement.The second adaptive approach presented in this PhD dissertation aims at tracking target groups whose movements are coordinated. Each group is characterized by a common parameter defining the coordination of the movements of its targets. However, the targets keep their own capabilities of maneuvering relatively to the group dynamics. Based on the random finite sets formalism, the proposed solution represents the multi-target multi-group configuration hierarchically. At the top level, the overall situation is modeled by a random finite set whose elements correspond to the target groups. They consist of the common parameter of the group and a multi-target random finite set. The latter contains the state vectors of the targets of the group whose number may change over time. The estimation algorithm developed is also organized hierarchically. A labeled multi-Bernoulli filter (LMB) makes it possible to estimate the number of groups, and for each of them, to obtain their probability of existence as well as their common parameter. For this purpose, the LMB filter interacts with a bank of multi-target filters working conditionally to a group hypothesis. Each multi-target filter estimates the number and state vectors of the objects in the group. This approach provides operational information on the tactical situation.
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Leo Legrand. Contributions aux pistages mono et multi-cibles fondés sur les ensembles finis aléatoires. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0107⟩. ⟨tel-02297129⟩

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