Modélisation avancée du contact pneu-chaussée pour l'étude des dégradations des chaussées en surface

Abstract : The recent appearance of new materials in road structures associated with surface layers thickness decreasing and the increasing of trucks loading and their passage frequency has led to new pathologies of degradation. In addition to the well-known rutting problems, top down cracking is now appearing as well as problems of decohesion at the interfaces. These new pathologies led to considerable expenditure on the entire network (around 15 billion euros per year), particularly in urbanized areas that are more prone to surface damage and do not make it possible to adequately estimate the lifetimes of the roadway, most often overestimated in current design methods. This doctoral work proposes a new approach of the tire-road contact allowing for better apprehend of the main and residual stresses in a bituminous pavement structure. Using a fast numerical tool based on a semi-analytical approach ("Semi-Analytical Methods" (SAM)), the precise geometry of the tire is integrated in order to obtain a real contact pressure distribution as well as surface shear on the pavement surface. Initially, an elastic tractive rolling contact model is implemented for simple theoretical cases and validated by analytical and numerical results from the literature.Then, this model is extended to take into account the elastoplastic behavior of the bodies in contact. This is compared to a numerical result based on the nite element method from the literature. The application for tire-pavement contact results, show a non-uniform distribution of stresses in the structure and mainly in the rst centimeters below the surface with much higher levels than can be predicted by current models that use a uniformly distributed load. The contact pressure is compared to the measurements made by a system called TekScan and the mechanical elds in sublayers are compared to those of Alizé-LCPC in the case of a simple structure. The surface shears are determined in the case of tractive rolling. An application is carried out on the modeling of surface pavement damage. Firstly, analyzes of the behavior of the surface pavement are carried out for a semi-innite semi-grit asphalt concrete layer supposed to be elastic, homogeneous under conditions of acceleration, braking and turning. For studies on top down cracking, principals deformations and directions are determined and analyzed. Then, the elastoplastic contact model is applied on a semi-innite asphalt agragate layer. Deformations and residuals stresses generated in the structure are determined for an analysis on the instability ruts. Once validated, these results will make it possible to more accurately estimate the residual life of pavements but also to understand and avoid surface or near surfacedegradation mechanisms.
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Edem Yawo Manyo. Modélisation avancée du contact pneu-chaussée pour l'étude des dégradations des chaussées en surface. Génie civil. Université de Limoges, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LIMO0034⟩. ⟨tel-02297090⟩

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