Modeling of Diesel injection in subcritical and supercritical conditions

Abstract : To satisfy latest stringent emission regulations, important progress is still be expected from internal combustion engines. In addition, improving engine efficiency to reduce the emission and fuel consumption has become more essential than before. But many complex phenomena remain poorly understood in this field, such as the fuel injection process. Numerous software programs for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) considering phase change (such as cavitation) and injection modelling, have been developed and used successfully in the injection process. Nevertheless, there are few CFD codes able to simulate correctly transcritical conditions starting from a subcritical fuel temperature condition towards a supercritical mixture in the combustion chamber. Indeed, most of the existing models can simulate either single-phase flows possibly in supercritical condition or two-phase flows in subcritical condition; lacking therefore, a comprehensive model which can deal with transcritical condition including possible phase transition from subcritical to supercritical regimes, or from single-phase to two-phase flows, dynamically. This thesis aims at dealing with this challenge. For that, real fluid compressible two-phase flow models based on Eulerian-Eulerian approach with the consideration of phase equilibrium have been developed and discussed in the present work.More precisely, a fully compressible 6-equation model including liquid and gas phases balance equations solved separately; and a 4-equation model which solves the liquid and gas balance equations in mechanical and thermal equilibrium, are proposed in this manuscript. The Peng-Robinson equation of state (EoS) is selected to close both systems and to deal with the eventual phase change or phase transition. Particularly, a phase equilibrium solver has been developed and validated. Then, a series of 1D academic tests involving the evaporation and condensation phenomena performed under subcritical and supercritical conditions have been simulated and compared with available literature data and analytical results. Then the fully compressible two-phase flow models (6-Equation and 4-Equation systems) have been employed to simulate the cavitation phenomena in a real size 3D nozzle to investigate the effect of dissolved N2 on the inception and developing of cavitation. The good agreement with experimental data proves the solver can handle the complex phase change behavior in subcritical condition. Finally, the capability of the solver in dealing with the transcritical injection at high pressure and temperature conditions has been further validated through the successful modelling of the engine combustion network (ECN) Spray A injector.
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Songzhi Yang. Modeling of Diesel injection in subcritical and supercritical conditions. Fluids mechanics [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLC045⟩. ⟨tel-02296577⟩

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