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L’agriculture de la région beyrouthine au prisme des terres waqf (Liban) : une géographie foncière des logiques agricoles

Abstract : In the Mediterranean countries, agriculture linked to city knows various dynamics, between renewal and decline. In Lebanon, agriculture extends over small surface areas and is limited by steep terrain. Moreover, the country suffers from weak planning policies that do not address its agriculture, especially that found in urban contexts. Yet, agriculture persists in the city. In this thesis, we explore agriculture linked to the city in the light of a right that is specific to the Arab region, the waqf. We depart from the following hypothesis: waqf properties allow to maintain, if not to develop, agriculture related to the city. Adopting a multiscale approach, we examine agriculture on waqf at the level of sites, as well as production units, and draw a geography, rather a land geography based on agricultural actors’ logic or logiques agricoles in french.According to our results, waqf lands are quite present in the Beirut region. Agricultural waqf are more resilient- than private lands- to urbanization, especially when found on convent sites located in the peri-urban area of Beirut. If the objective underlying the constitution of a waqf is the immobilization of goods for usages generating revenues for pious actions, still we can distinguish different types of waqf: family, charitable but also religious waqf, especially Christian religious waqf, whose income is used to support the servants of the Church and the fulfillment of religious actions. Management of community waqf, abundant in the study area, differs among religious communities: it is centralized among Greek-orthodox, Sunnis and Catholics in the case of church waqf, and decentralized among Shiites and Catholics in the case of convent waqf. If agricultural leasing and sharecropping are possible on waqf lands, they are ruled by contracts extending over 3, 6, 9 years among Catholics, and varying according to the agricultural project among the Orthodox, which grants a greater land security than which found on private lands (annually renewed contracts). Various agricultural forms can be found on waqf: market gardening, fruit trees, breeding and processing (direct tenure by clergymen) but also hydroponics, nurseries and special crops (indirect tenure of lands, leasing), whereas on private lands we find market gardening and more and more nurseries. Identified agricultural logics show a revival of agriculture on waqf lands borrowing different trajectories and maintaining various links to the city.Finally, the waqf, despite their social vocation, do not appear as commons nor as private properties. They are rather driven by their own communitarian logic.
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Carine Lteif. L’agriculture de la région beyrouthine au prisme des terres waqf (Liban) : une géographie foncière des logiques agricoles. Géographie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MON30006⟩. ⟨tel-02296257⟩



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