An innovative lightweight cryptography system for Internet-of-Things ULP applications

Abstract : The Internet of Things (IoT) has been fostered by accelerated advancements in communication technologies, computation technologies,sensor technologies, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and semiconductor technologies. In general, IoT contains cloud computing to do data processing, communication infrastructure including the Internet, and sensor nodes which can collect data, send them through the network infrastructure to the Internet, and receive controls to react to the environment. During its operations, IoT may collect, transmit and process secret data, which raise security problems. Implementing security mechanisms for IoT is challenging because IoT organizations include millions of devices integrated at multiple layers, whereas each layer has different computation capabilities and security requirements. Furthermore, sensor nodes in IoT are intended to be battery-based constrained devices with limited power budget, limited computation, and limited memory footprint to reduce costs. Implementing security mechanisms on these devices even encounters more challenges. This work is therefore motivated to focus on implementing data encryption to protect IoT sensor nodes and systems with the consideration of hardware cost, throughput and power/energy consumption. To begin with, a ultra-low-power block cipher crypto-accelerator with configurable parameters is proposed and implemented in ST 28nm FDSOI technology in SNACk test chip with two cryptography modules: AES and PRESENT. AES is a widely used data encryption algorithm for the Internet and currently used for new IoT proposals, while PRESENT is a lightweight algorithm which comes up with reduced security level but requires with much smaller hardware area and lower consumption. The AES module is a 32-bit datapath architecture containing multiple optimization strategies supporting multiple security levels from 128-bit keys up to 256-bit keys. The PRESENT module contains a 64-bit round-based architecture to maximize its throughput. The measured results indicate that this crypto-accelerator can provide medium throughput (around 20Mbps at 10MHz) while consumes less than 20uW at normal condition and sub-pJ of energy per bit. However, the limitation of crypto-accelerator is that the data has to be read into the crypto-accelerator and write back to memory which increases the power consumption. After that, to provide a high level of security with flexibility and configurability to adapt to new standards and to mitigate to new attacks, this work looks into an innovative approach to implement the cryptography algorithm which uses the new proposed In-Memory-Computing SRAM. In-Memory Computing SRAM can provide reconfigurable solutions to implement various security primitives by programming the memory's operations. The proposed scheme is to carry out the encryption in the memory using the In-Memory-Computing technology. This work demonstrates two possible mapping of AES and PRESENT using In-Memory Computing.
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Duy-Hieu Bui. An innovative lightweight cryptography system for Internet-of-Things ULP applications. Micro and nanotechnologies/Microelectronics. Université Grenoble Alpes; Trường Đại học Quốc Gia Hà Nội, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAT001⟩. ⟨tel-02295267⟩

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