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Bases moléculaires et structurales de l’interaction entre deux calréticulines de parasite et la protéine humaine C1q

Abstract : During this thesis, we were interested in two parasite calreticulin and their interaction with the human C1q protein in the context of the subversion of the immune system. Indeed, a molecular mimicry strategy with human apoptotic cells is suggested for the calreticulin exposure on the surface of the infectious form of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is responsible of Chagas' disease. In the case of the parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which is involved in amoebiasis, the interaction of C1q with the surface-exposed calreticulin is used to enhance phagocytosis of host cells.Calreticulin is mainly localised in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it acts as a chaperone protein to favour the folding of monoglycosylated proteins. Moreover one of the extracellular functions of human calreticulin is to enhance the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. This function is mediated through C1q interaction with calreticulin exposed on the surface of both cells.We solved the structure of fragments of both parasite calreticulins. Chaperone-like interactions and an overview of the flexibility of the P domain were observed in the crystal packing and deepened using SAXS analyses. The fragments generated for X-ray crystallography studies allowed us to identify a key region of the interaction between C1q and the calreticulins. Two C1q mutations located in its globular regions (GRC1q) inhibit the interaction with calreticulin and IgM, suggesting a common binding area. To further characterise theses interactions, we started NMR experiments and we produced the first single-chain recombinant form of GRC1q, which allowed solving its structure at high-resolution. Our investigations could provide tools to develop therapies against these parasites, and to decipher the role of mammal CRT on the surface of macrophages and apoptotic cells.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 24, 2019 - 9:26:08 AM
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Christophe J Moreau. Bases moléculaires et structurales de l’interaction entre deux calréticulines de parasite et la protéine humaine C1q. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAV021⟩. ⟨tel-02295182⟩



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