Evaluation expérimentale du risque prion lié aux porteurs asymptomatiques chez l'Homme et le macaque

Abstract : The detection of abnormal prion protein in the lymphoid tissues of UK patients suggests that after exposure to the agent of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), more than 99% of contaminations may remain clinically silent. These data highlight a risk of secondary transmission through blood transfusion. In parallel to the classical vCJD forms, our experimental models in mice and macaques revealed another group which avoids the current diagnostic criteria, including the absence of abnormal prion protein (PrPres).The main goal of our work was to experimentally assess the risk of blood through retransmission studies and characterization of the abnormal replication of classical and atypical strains examined at peripheral and central levels.We observed a high heterogeneity of the distribution of the abnormal PrP in the lymphoid tissues of vCJD transfused macaques. The global level of contamination in lymphoid tissues seems proportional to the blood infectivity in these animals and to the risk of in vivo transmission of the disease. Regarding atypical forms, despite an absence of replication in lymphoid tissues, these phenotypes are experimentally transmissible. Transmissions to immunodeficient mice reveal that atypical strains are transmissible through peripheral routes in the absence of functional immune system.An alternative to animal testing has been achieved using to "mini-brains" mimicking the complexity of the human nervous system. These organoids cultured in three dimensions are sensitive to at least one prion isolate associated with human sporadic forms. Thus, mini-brains could constitute a new tool for studying prion diseases and improve the characterization of atypical strains.
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Jessica Rontard. Evaluation expérimentale du risque prion lié aux porteurs asymptomatiques chez l'Homme et le macaque. Biologie moléculaire. PSL Research University, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLET008⟩. ⟨tel-02294400⟩

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