Barres d’avant-côte et trait de côte : dynamique, couplage et effets induits par la mise en place d’un atténuateur de houle

Abstract : In recent years, traditional coastal defense strategy has become increasingly unpopular as it is costly and lastingly scars the landscape with sometimes limited effectiveness or even adverse impact. Mimicking natural reefs, submerged breakwaters aims to protect the coast, decreasing wave energy through wave breaking offshore with the advantage of remaining invisible from the beach. The general objective of this work is to better understand the different morphodynamic processes that interact in the presence of these structures, especially for complex beach morphology with highly dynamic sandbars. The observation of the effects induced by a submerged breakwater deployed at the Lido of Sète (Gulf of Lions) on the morphological response is performed using a video monitoring system. Based on an automatic method for image correction developed in this thesis, a video-derived depth inversion algorithm was tested to infer nearshore bathymetry from remotely-sensed wave parameters. Our observations show that the submerged breakwater had a profound impact on the shoreline-sandbar system and suggest that, on barred beaches, the role of the sandbar is critical to shoreline response to the implementation of such a structure. The expected salient formation was not observed and, instead, shoreline coupled to the modified sandbar geometry, which resulted in a slight seaward migration of the shoreline in the lee of the structure. In order to characterize the nearshore circulation induced by these structures and to better assess sediment transport, the morphodynamic model 2DBeach was then implemented on Sète and at another beach in Australia where an artificial reef of different size and shape has been deployed. This work allows a better understanding of the influence of a submerged breakwater on the morphological evolution of sandbars and shoreline on time scales from storm to years, and provides new insight into nearshore system response to better design sustainable management of sandy beaches.
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Clément Bouvier. Barres d’avant-côte et trait de côte : dynamique, couplage et effets induits par la mise en place d’un atténuateur de houle. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0088⟩. ⟨tel-02294118⟩

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