Services écosystémiques rendus par les prairies de marais et les prairies mésophiles : diversité floristique, qualité fourragère et stock de carbone.

Abstract : Permanent grasslands are recognized for the many agronomic and environmental services they provide. However, they are still plowed or threatened to be in favor of more productive cultures, or abandoned in the case of wet grasslands, where the conditions of exploitation are subjected to many constraints. Reconciling production and environmental objectives in order to maintain extensive agricultural activities is therefore essential in permanent grasslands. In this context, multi-service studies have been carried out in the wet grasslands of the Regional Natural Park (PNR) of the Cotentin and Bessin marshes (Normandy, France) as well as in a set of mesophilous grasslandsofcontrasting pedoclimatic conditions located in Normandy, Lorraine and Auvergne. The study focused on 3 categories of Ecosystem Services (ES) as defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: floristic and functional diversity as support services, quality and forage production as supply services and stocks of organic carbon and soluble carbon soil contents as regulatory services. In order to analyzethe role of plant community functioning in the ES determinism, the measurement of leaf functional traits was carried out at the species and/or the plant community scales. Part of this work focuses particularly on the relationships between plant communities functioning and forage quality, and soil moisture conditions impact on micronutrient contents of species in wet grasslands. The results showed that, depending on the functional group, SLA or LDMC were good proxies for the digestibility of wet grassland forages. Dicots have higher micronutrient contents than Monocots. Our results show that flooding influences the elemental composition of flood-intolerant species more than adapted species and does not affect biomass production. In general, the plant community functioning does not explain all the relationship between ESs. Forage quality is linked to the plant community functioning as well as thefloristic and functional diversity but only forwet grasslands. In mesophilic grasslands, the history of management or the landscape structure could be important drivers. In addition, our results show that organic C stocks in the soil of wet and mesophilic grasslands are closely related to soil nature. ESs indicators have brought together 4 distinct groups of wet grasslands according to soil nature and management practices (mowing or grazing). Overall, the ESs packages offered by wet grasslands are better balanced than those provided by mesophilic grasslands, the latter being indistinguishable from another according to the geographical location. Extensively managed grasslands provide better environmental services than intensively managed grasslands and equivalent forage quality.
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Elise Tasset. Services écosystémiques rendus par les prairies de marais et les prairies mésophiles : diversité floristique, qualité fourragère et stock de carbone.. Biologie végétale. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC288⟩. ⟨tel-02293122⟩

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