Étude expérimentale de la combustion à volume constant pour la propulsion aérobie : influence de l'aérodynamique et de la dilution sur l'allumage et la combustion

Abstract : Current turbomachines have reached a very high level of technical maturity. Thermodynamic cycles based on pressure-gain combustion, such as constant volume combustion (CVC), feature a clear potential for efficiency improvement. The present study considers the integration in a turbomachine of piston-lessCVC chambers. The thesis work is twofold. First, a new experimental setup (CV2) dedicated to cyclic piston-less CVC is developed and thoroughly characterized on a reference operating point. Second, the influence of the aerodynamics and dilution on the processes of ignition and, in a larger sense, on combustion is discussed through dedicated studies. The CV2 device allows for the spark-ignited air-breathing combustion of a mixture of either propane orn-decane, directly injected into the chamber. A reference condition is characterized in details using: PIV velocity field measurements, chemiluminescence of combustion and a 0D modeling of the device. This detailed characterization evidenced that the CV2 combustion chamber successfully replicates, on a number of cycles allowing a reasonable statistical convergence, a turbulent deflagrative constant-volume combustion in a mixture stratified in composition. Those diagnostics and analyses are applied to 2 cases of study to characterize successively : the influence of the aerodynamics, through a variation of the ignition timing, the influence of the residual burnt gases on spark-ignited combustion and the cyclic stability, through a variation of the exhaust backpressure.Operating the device without scavenging of the combustion chamber, we show that the cyclic variability correlates strongly with both the variation of residual burnt gases dilution and the local velocity. Particularly, we show that for a given mixture, a correlation exists between a statistical velocity limit and the average probability of ignition. The effect of a plenum backpressure upstream of a turbine, downstream of the combustion chamber, is simulated by varying the exhaust system backpressure. The resulting dilution, which increases with the exhaust backpressure, diminishes the fundamental flame velocity of the mixture and slows down the combustion. The residual burnt gases temperature results from the integrated heat exchanges that happen during the total cycle duration starting from the end of combustion of cycle N, to the ignition of cycle N+1. Enhanced cycles, with an increased wall temperature and reduced exhaust duration, are extrapolated by 0D analysis. Those cycles evidence a reduction of the cumulated heat exchanges of up to 20 %. The resulting dilutionis more favorable to higher turbulent flame velocity thus to shorter combustion duration. A phenomenon of ignition induced by the residual burnt gases is observed on certain combustion cycles. This phenomenon is characterized in favorable conditions, i.e. fuel-lean equivalence ratio (0.66), late ignition and shortcycles. During an ignition by residual burnt gases, a flame kernel is ignited in areas where the still hot residuals burnt gases meet fresh gases in low-velocity areas around the intake jet. The ignition kernel then propagates to the rest of the mixture in a similar manner as if it was spark-ignited.This work is part of the CAPA Chair research program on Alternative Combustion modes for Air-breathing Propulsion supported by SAFRAN Tech, MBDAFrance and ANR (French National Research Agency).
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Quentin Michalski. Étude expérimentale de la combustion à volume constant pour la propulsion aérobie : influence de l'aérodynamique et de la dilution sur l'allumage et la combustion. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ESMA0009⟩. ⟨tel-02293109⟩

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