Des usages situés aux classes de situations : contribution à un outil destiné aux acteurs de la conception. : le cas des usages de véhicules utilitaires légers

Abstract : The main purpose of this research is based on identifying and analysing the usages diversity of complex technical systems, Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV), carried out by heterogeneous professional users so as to contribute to a typology of usages. The aim of the typology is to serve as an informational resource for the actors of the design process. This work revolves around two directions. ■ The first direction focuses on the analysis of the usages diversity so as to be able to put to the fore the structuring criteria. To this end, we propose a transversal analysis unit to all the activities: “the situated usages of a multi instrumented system (MIS)”. We define them as all the user’s actions directed towards a specific goal that performs a general and situated activity, and involves all or part of the MIS as a mediator or object of the activity. The MIS represents the sub-instrumental system built from a complex technical system by the user. The analyses are based on two sets of observations (exploratory and systematic ones) among a variety of users. The results show that there are wider dimensions to the several poles of the instrumented activity influencing the realization of the usages. Indeed, the user is having complex interrelations with the resources of his action and with the characteristics of the global activity allowed by the usages and the characteristics of the situation under which they are produced. Therefore there are different types of usages depending on the SMI position within the usage and the object of the usage.■ The second direction aims at a reduction of the usages diversity purpose so as to achieve of categorization. Creating a categorization implies the need to define an analysis unit that underlies the construction of categories and variables allowing their discrimination. To this end, we propose to highlight a second analysis unit, “the usages situations’ classes of a SMI”, to enable further generalization through variables that structure the usages.But the sole conception of a categorization is not sufficient enough compared to the company’s design characteristics and to the various informative needs of its actors. As a consequence we propose a first task to apprehend the understanding of the processes involved as well as the different agents’ assignments which contribute to this understanding and to the informational needs in terms of final users’ usages they may require. In order to do so, a series of semi structured interviews were held with those involved in design: 1) some tasks imply the necessity to take into account LCV usages; 2) the performing of distinct activities at various set times and/or design processes. The results offer guidelines to contribute to the evolution of the typology of usages.These various works conducted enable us to propose different ways of developing the existing typology of usages in the company. They cover two dimensions: 1) the data provided by typology itself and one’s way to present it; 2) the methodology used to update the data.
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Aurelie Klein. Des usages situés aux classes de situations : contribution à un outil destiné aux acteurs de la conception. : le cas des usages de véhicules utilitaires légers. Sociologie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE2093⟩. ⟨tel-02293054⟩

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