Potentialisation de la réponse antidépressive par la lumière : étude préclinique

Abstract : The treatment of depression remains unsatisfactory. Given that one third of patients does not respond to any of the proposed treatments, the long delay of action, and the significant side effects, there is an urgent need to develop new and effective therapeutic strategies. Light, a treatment of choice for seasonal depression, has been of particular interest since thirty years in the treatment of non-seasonal unipolar and bipolar depressions. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of light therapy remains poorly understood. The aim of this thesis was to understand, using an original model of depression, the neurobiological mechanisms of the antidepressant effect of light stimulation. We developed an original model of depression combining forced swimming stress and social isolation. Our results showed that the latter protocol induced pseudo-depressive behaviors that were stable and resistant to classical treatments (escitalopram), but also ones recently tested in clinical studies to treat refractory patients (ketamine). Although bright light stimulation (BLS, 1000 lux, one hour per day) failed to present an antidepressant effect, we demonstrated in our model of resistant depression that BLS potentiated the antidepressant response of sub-effective doses of ketamine and scopolamine combination. This effect was modulated by serotonin tone. Indeed, this effect was blocked by tryptophan depletion. Remarkably, we unveiled that the potentiating action of light involves lateral habenula astroglia. These results suggest that light stimulation, associated with ketamine and scopolamine combination, modulated astroglia, in order to restore a normal activity in the lateral habenula and to regulate monoaminergic systems, leading to an effective antidepressant response. This work allowed to better understand the mechanisms responsible of the potentiating action of light and will certainly help in optimizing therapeutic strategies in treatment-resistant depression
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Sarah Delcourte. Potentialisation de la réponse antidépressive par la lumière : étude préclinique. Neurosciences. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1068⟩. ⟨tel-02292837⟩

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