MUTATIONS SOCIO-ÉCONOMIQUES ET GESTION DURABLE DU MASSIF FORESTIER DE NGOYLA - MINTOM

Abstract : Located in south-east of Cameroon, the Ngoyla-Mintom forest stretches over two regions (South and East) and four districts (Mintom Ngoyla Lomie and Messok). This forest is part of the TRIDOM interzone and ensures connectivity between the protected areas of this transboundary reserve. It also provides local communities with many social and cultural services important for their livelihood and the maintenance of their lifestyles. Due to its location and its importance, its exploitation has been frozen for the benefit of biodiversity conservation. Since 2007, in addition to conservation projects, this forest is desired by many actors for various reasons. In this context marked by various solicitations and anthropic pressures the conservation and sustainable management of this forest remains a major challenge. This research which deals with socioeconomic dynamics and the sustainable management of the Ngoyla-Mintom forest aims at identifying, analysing the different mutations and to determine the impacts of these changes on its management. To this end, the methodology associated the territorial diagnosis, socio-economic surveys conducted in 11 localities and the treatment of Google Earth images (2015) and Landsat images (2000 and 2015). A matrix integrating the dimensions of sustainable management and its indicators is developed to assess the impact of mutations. The synthesis of the vectors of the dynamics and the interventions of the various actors is made with the DSPIR approach. The different challenges and challenges facing the Ngoyla-Mintom forest have led to the development of a prospective vision for the management of this area. The results show that the Ngoyla-Mintom massif is characterized by its rich natural resources, enclavement and low population density (1.1 hab / km²). The activities of the local and indigenous populations remain dominated by the exploitation of the resources of the environment (agriculture 51% hunting 12% harvest of NTFP 2%) using rudimentary techniques. Since 2007, several factors including the construction of transport and energy infrastructures, artisanal gold mining, exploration and industrial exploitation of mines, industrial logging etc. have combined to constitute real catalysts for the current socio-economic dynamics. This resulted in a rapid increase in population in some localities such as Mbalam 2 (284.61%) and Ntam (121.82%) between 2007 and 2011, a growing demand for local products, expansion of agricultural activities, a decrease in forest cover, extension of villages, development of new poles and income generating activities, an increase in prices of local product and a relative fall in prices of basic manufactured products due to the progressive disenclavement. The analysis of these change catalysts and the resulting mutations made it possible to show the relationships between these changes and the sustainability of the forest for the moment and in the short run. The relationship between the different impacts of the mutations on the forest is positive; it is about 0.95 (Pearson test) for deforestation and loss of biodiversity. It is subject to various pressures which are at the root of its degradation. However, the implementation in 2014 of integrated zoning, collaboration between the different actors, implementation of PES / REDD projects, sensitization and involvement of local populations and many other advances for a more sustainable management of this forest are recorded on the ground. They can allow in the long term allow better management of this forest. To strengthen these initiatives and address threats, the study made proposals to limit the degradation of this forest.
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Claude Tatuebu Tagne. MUTATIONS SOCIO-ÉCONOMIQUES ET GESTION DURABLE DU MASSIF FORESTIER DE NGOYLA - MINTOM. Milieux et Changements globaux. Université de Yaoundé 1, 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02290022⟩

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