Détection de points de vue sur les médias sociaux numériques

Abstract : Numerous domains have interests in studying the viewpoints expressed online, be it for marketing, cybersecurity, or research purposes with the rise of computational social sciences. We propose in this manuscript two contributions to the field of stance detection, focused around the difficulty of obtaining annotated data of quality on social medias. Our first contribution is a large and complex dataset of 22853 Twitter profiles active during the French presidential campaign of 2017. This is one of the rare datasets that considers a non-binary stance classification and, to our knowledge, the first one with a large number of profiles, and the first one proposing overlapping political communities. This dataset can be used as-is to study the campaign mechanisms on Twitter, or used to test stance detection models or network analysis tools. We then propose two semi-supervised generic stance detection models using a handful of seed profiles for which we know the stance to classify the rest of the profiles by exploiting various proximities. Indeed, current stance detection models are usually grounded on the specificities of some social platforms, which is unfortunate since it does not allow the integration of the multitude of available signals. By infering proximities from differents types of elements available on social medias, we can detect profiles close enough to assume they share a similar stance on a given subject. Our first model is a sequential ensemble algorithm which propagates stances thanks to a multi-layer graph representing proximities between profiles. Using datasets from two platforms, we show that, by combining several types of proximities, we can achieve excellent results. Our second model allows us to observe the evolution of profiles' stances during an event with as little as one seed profile by stance. This model confirms that a large majority of profiles do not change their stance on social medias, or do not express their change of heart.
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Ophélie Fraisier. Détection de points de vue sur les médias sociaux numériques. Cryptographie et sécurité [cs.CR]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30200⟩. ⟨tel-02288853⟩

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