L'Âge du Bronze moyen atlantique au prisme de la parure : recherches sur les ornements corporels en bronze de France atlantique et des régions voisines entre le milieu du XVe et la fin du XIVe siècle avant notre ère

Abstract : During the second part of the Middle Bronze Age, between, XVth and beginning of the XIIIth century BC, many bronze bracelets, anklets, pins and torcs are produced and buried in the northern part of Atlantic Europe, mainly within hoards. This constitutes a peculiar moment, in which this hoard phenomenon evolves, particularly through a significant increase of the buried and immersed metallic mass. If it is evidently consistent with a strong increase of the production, it does not completely explain the plethoric quantity of bronze objects removed from the economic circulation.Through the detailed inventory of bronze ornaments and their typo-technologic classification, but also their spatial and statistics analysis, it has been showed that the ornament typological attribution required being as accurate as other object categories, providing crucial information about cultural interpretation. This revised classification identifies 14 types of pin, 2 of torcs and 27 of bracelets and anklets. These types form the major part of Middle Bronze Age 2 bronze ornament production yet discovered in Atlantic France, including imitating productions and importations from neighbouring areas.Concerning the technological aspect, one of the main contributions of this research is the demonstration of the predominant use of lost-wax-casting technique in the production of plain bracelets and anklets. A technique of wax slicing has been highlighted: clear examples from Bignan and Trégueux hoards indicate that strips and coils were cut in a wax drafts then individually curved and decorated, before smelting.This study concerns a wide geographical area, allowing considering different production/diffusion networks. Local specificities have been identified through the presence of types whose area of diffusion is clearly restricted/which have a restricted area of diffusion or by the hoard composition distinguishable from the neighbouring areas.Several groups are identified at a regional scale, characterized by the burying of a certain type of ornaments whose morphology and ornamentation are specific of a distinct area. The precise typo-technological analysis identify/allows to identify productions which are preferentially deposited in a specific area, but also to recognize the possible importations, affinities and influences visible through ornaments. Interactions between these groups have been estimated at different scales, allowing clarifying the outlines of the Atlantic space.Long-distance trades have been detected during Middle Bronze Age through the importation of materials (Baltic amber, Middle East glass, etc.), but also ornaments, particularly visible between Atlantic France, the South of England, Luneburg and Schleswig-Holstein. If it is not possible to reconstruct precisely the nature of these trades, it could be tempting to interpret them in terms of people circulation, maybe by matrimonial exchanges. Ornaments are often use in this context in modern or ancient societies.Finally, bronze ornaments are proven to be excellent indicators for the study of Atlantic Middle Bronze Age societies. This research has contributed to a better understanding of this period from a cultural, socio-economic, technical and symbolic matter.
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Marilou Nordez. L'Âge du Bronze moyen atlantique au prisme de la parure : recherches sur les ornements corporels en bronze de France atlantique et des régions voisines entre le milieu du XVe et la fin du XIVe siècle avant notre ère. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU20057⟩. ⟨tel-02288733⟩

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