Diversité des Scolytes : Coléoptèra, Curculionidae, Scolytinae et leurs champignons associés dans l'écosystème forestier d'Equateur

Abstract : Scolytinae insects, or bark beetles, are major biotic agents of forest ecosystem disturbance throughout the world. They can have severe ecological and economic impacts in both natural forests and commercial plantations. The dynamics and ecology of bark beetles in temperate, boreal and Mediterranean forests have been extensively documented, defining an appropriate conceptual framework for the study of these insects in other forest ecosystems where knowledge remains fragmented. This is the case of the equatorial neo-tropical forests, in which bark beetle communities remain to date relatively unknown, despite their increasing involvement in the damage and mortality observed in the context of global change and the replacement of natural forests by plantations. In this thesis, I focused on the climatic and the ecological factors driving the diversity and impact of bark beetles in natural forests and in balsa (Ochroma pyramidale) plantations in Ecuador, as well as in scolytines-fungi associations that can take place in a number of scolytine species. This work has enriched current knowledge on the diversity of bark beetles in Ecuador. In particular, I have shown that different types of forest habitats (natural forests and balsa plantations) have a greater influence on species composition than on cumulative species richness. I also identified indicator species of these habitats, one of which is a major pest of balsa in plantations (Coptoborus ochromactonus), and three others are exotic species. The specific study of the biology and population dynamics of C. ochromactonus in balsa plantations has shown that climatic and tree age factors significantly influence the damages caused by this bark beetle. Finally, I was able to highlight the association of ambrosia fungi Raffaelea sp. nr. arxii and Fusarium ambrosium with Xyleborus bark beetles, one of the most diverse and abundant genera in natural forest and balsa plantation. My thesis provides stimulating new perspectives in terms of biodiversity and management of health risks related to bark beetles in forest ecosystems of Ecuador.Key words: scolytine, richness, abundance, species composition, primary forest, damage, phenology, insect-plant interaction, ambrosia fungi, Xyleborus
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Malena Martinez Chevez. Diversité des Scolytes : Coléoptèra, Curculionidae, Scolytinae et leurs champignons associés dans l'écosystème forestier d'Equateur. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MONTG017⟩. ⟨tel-02286822⟩

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