Modifications métaboliques induites par la prise en charge thérapeutique des patientes atteintes d'un cancer du sein

Abstract : There is a close relationship between breast cancer and weight. If weight excess is a risk factor for the onset of breast cancer, obesity at diagnosis and weight variations (± 5 % of initial weight) during treatement are associated with poor prognosis. Weight loss and weight gain result in an energy imbalance (energy intake and energy expenditure). The caracteristics and causes of these variations are not well described. Fat mass gain seems to be recognized as a factor of poor prognosis hence the importance to understand body composition evolution during breast cancer treatment.In this context, the aims of this thesis were to characterized weight and body compostion variation throughout treatment and to study the factors involved in the energy imbalance of which physical activity and certain components of resting energy expenditure.This thesis works have been centered around three clinical trials. Firstly, MétaCa2 trial that attempted to describe the long term evolution of weight and body composition among no-metastatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients (on average 3 years post-chemotherapy). The results of this study have shown that weight loss during chemotherapy is associated with a later weight gain during adjuvant period of treatment. This study has also demonstrated a weight and fat mass gain during endocrine therapy in the overall population and more especially for the patients with an initial fat mass excess. The increase in time spent sitting between the end of chemotherapy and the initiation of endocrine therapy has been identified has a factor associated with long term fat mass gain.Then, we have explored a hypothesis, supported by our team, suggesting that chemotherapy could have an impact on brown adipose tissue. This one is implied in the adaptative thermogenesis and so in energy expenditure and could contribute to weight gain. For this end, we realised an ancillary study to AVATAXHER trial among 109 HER2+ breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and HER2 targeted therapy. The results have highlighted a significant decrease of BAT metabolic activity after one course of chemotherapy in the overall population and specifically in the subgroup of patients who gained weight during chemotherapy. Physical activity constitutes a possible strategy for individual prevention against weight and body composition variation. In the HER2+ subpopulation, it could also limit the cardiotoxicity of standard treatements. We have set up a prospective interventional trial in order to study the feasibility of a home-based physical activity intervention among HER2+ breast cancer patients currently treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy + targeted therapy. The objective of the intervention is to achieve or maintain a physical activity level corresponding to the international recommendations, i.e. at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week thanks to a personalised program combining aerobic physical activity and muscular strengthening.These original results have contributed to provide new knowledge about weight and body composition variation during early breast cancer treatments and also about some potential causes imply in energy imbalance.
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Angeline Ginzac Couvé. Modifications métaboliques induites par la prise en charge thérapeutique des patientes atteintes d'un cancer du sein. Cancer. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAS001⟩. ⟨tel-02286171⟩

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