The synchronization of shared mobility flows in urban environments

Abstract : The rise of research into shared mobility systems reflects emerging challenges, such as rising urbanization rates, traffic congestion, oil prices and environmental concerns. The operations research community has turned towards more sharable and sustainable systems of transportation. Although shared mobility comes with many benefits, it has some challenges that are restricting its widespread adoption. More research is thus needed towards developing new shared mobility systems so that a better use of the available transportation assets can be obtained.This thesis aims at developing efficient models and optimization approaches for synchronizing people and freight flows in an urban environment. As such, the following research questions are addressed throughout the thesis:*Q1: What are the variants of shared mobility systems and how to optimize them?*Q2: How can people trips be synchronized and what gains can this synchronization yields?*Q3: How can people and freight flows be combined and what are the intended benefits?*Q4: What impacts uncertainty can have on planning and operating shared mobility systems?First, we review different variants of the shared mobility problem where either (i) travelers share their rides, or (ii) the transportation of passengers and freight is combined. We then classify these variants according to their models, solution approaches and application context and We provide a comprehensive overview of the recently published papers and case studies. Based on this review, we identify two shared mobility problems, which we study further in this thesis.Second, we study a ridesharing problem where individually-owned and on-demand autonomous vehicles (AVs) are used for transporting passengers and a set of meeting points is used for synchronizing their trips. We develop a two-phase method (a pre-processing algorithm and a matching optimization problem) for assessing the sharing potential of different AV ownership models, and we evaluate them on a case study for New York City.Then, we present a model that integrates freight deliveries to a scheduled line for people transportation where passengers demand, and thus the available capacity for transporting freight, is assumed to be stochastic. We model this problem as a two-stage stochastic problem and we provide a MIP formulation and a sample average approximation (SAA) method along with an Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) algorithm to solve it. We then analyze the proposed approach as well as the impacts of stochastic passengers demand on such integrated system on a computational study.Finally, we summarize the key findings, highlight the main challenges facing shared mobility systems, and suggest potential directions for future research.
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Abood Mourad. The synchronization of shared mobility flows in urban environments. Infrastructures de transport. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLC041⟩. ⟨tel-02286031⟩

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