Étude d'un système quantique ouvert en interactions répétées de type maser à un atome.

Abstract : Open quantum systems describe the evolution of a system S in interaction with one or more other systems called environments. Two approaches in the literature to study such systems: the hamiltonian approach in which the entire system is considered, and the markovian approach in which one gives up the idea of describing the environment and only considers a so called effective dynamics of the system S which takes into account the effect of the environment.A particular class of such systems will interest us: the quantum systems with repeated interactions. The system S interacts successively with a series of independent subsystems. The approach of these systems is both Hamiltonian and Markovian. Their study plays a fundamental role in the understanding of light-matter interactions as well as in quantum optics (like one-atom maser experiment).In this thesis we study a repeated interaction system of the one-atom maser type. The model describes an electromagnetic field trapped in a cavity and a beam of atoms passing through it but with an additional reservoir interacting continuously with the electromagnetic field. The idea is that the cavity is not perfectly isolated and we describe the leaks in the cavity via the interaction with this reservoir. Thus the interaction between the electromagnetic field and the atoms is described by a quantum system with repeated interactions and the interaction between the electromagnetic field and the reservoir is described by a Hamiltonian approach of open quantum systems.The system "cavity+reservoir" has been studied by Konenberg, based on previous works by Arai. Usingan explicit diagonalization of the hamiltonian he proved some properties of return to equilibrium. In a first part we will give a new approach to it using recent results by Nam, Napiorkowski and Solovej about the diagonalization of quadratic bosonic hamiltonians.First we study the self-adjointness of some Hamiltonians which will play an important role in this thesis and we consider the diagonalization of one of them. In a second time, we study the long time behavior of the system, we obtain an explicit formula for the evolution at a given time of Weyl observables. These results will also allow us to study the total energy variation as well as the energy exchanges in the system. Finally we study the entropy production in the system and relate it to the energy variation. To do so we will need to slightly generalize the Jaksic-Pillet entropy production formula.
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Thibault Ebroussard. Étude d'un système quantique ouvert en interactions répétées de type maser à un atome.. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CERG0975⟩. ⟨tel-02286000⟩

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