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, Synthèse des rapports (Dmax/L) mesurés sur des failles à surface de glissement (a) et sur des bandes de déformation (b)

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, Les flèches grises suggèrent la tendance moyenne qui change à partir d'une certaine épaisseur séparant les bandes individuelles et les clusters de bandes. D'après (Fossen et al., 2017), Epaisseur des bandes de cisaillement à composante compactive (CSB) individuelles et en cluster en fonction du déplacement observé

, La compaction est mesurée perpendiculairement à la bande en fonction du déplacement. Les bandes de compaction à composante cisaillante (SECB) montrent un rapport faible, autour de S/C=1 et proche de l'axe des abscisses qui définit les bandes de compaction pure (PCB) avec S = 0. Les bandes de cisaillement à composante compactive se positionnent plus haut dans le graphique avec des rapports entre, Rapports du taux de compaction (C) sur le déplacement cisaillant (S)

. Soliva, (a) Images mosaïques sous MEB-cathodoluminescence de bande de compaction à composante cisaillante à jeu inverse. L'orientation de la lame mince est verticale et la bande est délimitée par les lignes en tiretés. (b) détail de (a) avec déformation cassante et contacts concave-convexes. (c) Même image que (b) avec interprétation ; contacts concaves-convexes en rouge, microfractures en bleu et chaines de forces en jaune. D'après, Cinématique de bande et décalage d'un marqueur dans les cas (a) d'un cisaillement pur, (b) d'une compaction pure, (c) d'une compaction et d'un cisaillement égaux, d'après, 2010.

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, Coupes équilibrées N-S à travers l'avant-pays déformé des Corbières. Les fabriques magnétiques d'ASM

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, Modèles numériques 2D montrant la propagation de chevauchement dans un prisme. A. Orientation des contraintes. B. Régime de contraintes. C

, Coupe en tomographie RX du même système en modélisation analogique

D. Sassi and . Faure, , 1996.

. .. , Exemples de différentes enveloppes tracées à partir d'expérimentations géo-mécaniques sur presse triaxiale. Les références et le nom du matériau sont indiqués sur chaque graphique. D'après (Philit, 2017), p.57

A. Mair, Evolution des orientations de bandes cisaillantes en fonction de la pression de confinement, modifié d'après (Bésuelle, 2001). B. Images en coupes montrant les variations de structures obtenues sur des carottes avec évolu-tion de la pression de confinement, d'après, p.58, 2002.

, Régime compressif. (B) Régime extensif. (C) Diagramme Q-P (Contrainte différentielle (Q) et contrainte moyenne (P) montrant les différents chemins de chargement calculés pour un régime extensif (en bleu) et un régime compressif inverse (en rouge), Distribution des bandes de déformation en fonction du régime tectonique. (A)

D. Ballas, , 2014.

, DSB : Dilatant Shear Band (Bande de dilatation) ; SSB : Simple Shear Band (bande de cisaillement simple) ; CSB : Compactional Shear Band (bande de cisaillement à composante compactive) ; SECB : Shear Enhanced Compaction Band (Bande de compaction à composante cisaillante) ; PCB : Pure Compaction Band, Enveloppe synthétique des domaines de type de structure formée

. .. , Pervasive cataclastic flow (déformation homogène), p.60

, Diagramme Q-P présentant les différents types de structures formées dans les grès poreux en fonction de la localisation de l'intersection entre le chargement et l'enveloppe de plasticité

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, Panorama photographique et interprétation de l'anticlinal de Boixols est des dépôts syntectoniques. Les dépôts verts sont post-rift et anté-chevauchement

, 75 2.11 Panorama photographique et interprétation du Sant Corneli et des dépôts syntectoniques. Le coeur de l'anticlinal Santonien est en jaune, on note nettement le profil asymétrique du pli. Au dernier plan au centre de la photo on observe l'anticlinal de Boixols en vert. Les dépôts syn-tectoniques sont en mauve et se répartissent au Sud et au Nord du Sant Corneli pour la séquence de Vallcarga (voir texte pour les détails), Les dépôts syn-tectoniques apparaissent en mauve et la formation d'Aren a été colorée en marron, ces dépôts montrent une évolution des pendages depuis des couches sub-verticales proches de l'avant du pli, jusqu'à des dépôts sub-horizontaux dans le centre du bassin affichés en rouge représentant le Garumnien (sans prendre en compte les terrasses Quaternaires)

, Enfin les massifs conglomératiques Eocène supérieur-Oligocène, discordants sur le bassin, sont encore présents au Nord et représentés en orange, p.76

. Trois-coupes-nord-sud, E. A. Sant-corneli, and . Deramond, montrant le plongement vers l'Ouest des structures et les variations selon les accidents présentés. B. Carte des isobaths de profondeur du chevauchement de Boixols et son plongement constant vers l'Ouest, suggérant que des facteurs autres que le simple jeu du chevauchement sont à l'origine de la géométrie actuelle de la zone, des isobaths du sommet de la séquence postrift (Santonien inférieur), basée sur différentes données de surface et subsurface (Teixell et Muñoz, p.79, 1993.

L. Biostratigraphie and . Et-stratographie-séquentielle-de-la-formation-d'aren, , 2000.

. Shackleton, Dépôts de la séquence de Montesquieu. B. Début de la période Orcau-Vell. C. Fin de la période Orcau-Vell. D Début des dépôts de la séquence de Santa Engracia. E. Fin de la séquence Santa Engracia. F. Période post plissement après les dépôts Garumnien (Eocène-Oligocène). D'après, Évolution structurale et paléogéographique simplifiée du Sant-Corneli et des dépôts syn-tectoniques. A, 2011.

, Répartition de la déformation volumétrique plastique, extensive en valeurs positives et compressives en valeurs négatives. En bas, Profils de contraintes le long d'un puits vertical sur le toit de l'anticlinal des modèles numériques, d'après(Albertz et Sanz, 2012)

. Barbe, Représentation du prototype d'entrée avec différents matériels. B. Représentation du champ de vitesse (Ux). C. Représentation des contraintes horizontale (xx), verticale (yy) et cisaillante (xy). D'après, 2016.

. Barbe, Représentation des résultats de la distribution des contraintes (xx, yy, xy) selon un puits vertical dont la localisation est donnée figure 4.3A. Les zones bleues et roses correspondent respectivement à des régimes en extension et en compression. Les diagrammes en rose représentent les zones présen-tant une déformation cassante pour laquelle les pendages de fractures sont donnés. D'après, 2016.

, Encadrement de la force exacte produisant la rupture par l'approche cinématique, donnant la borne supérieure et l'approche statique donnant la borne inférieure. La différence entre ces deux bornes permet d'estimer l'incertitude sur le résultat, d'après (Caër, 2016)

, Evolution schématique et géométrique d'un pli de propagation proposée par (Suppe et Medwedeff, 1990)

. Mencos, Evolution schématique de la mise en place du Sant Corneli, d'après, 2011.

A. , Pli de propagation schématique et définition des paramètres géomé-triques de ce prototype. B. Table des paramètres évoluant avec les étapes de croissance du pli. H i

L. , onde du pli pour le niveau de référence ; A, amplitude du pli ; h r , hauteur de la rampe ; ?, angle de la rampe

S. Jabbour, épaisseur de sédiments syn-tectoniques ; ? B , angle de friction interne du volume du prototype ; ? d , angle de friction interne du décollement et de la rampe ; ? S , angle de friction interne du matériel syn-tectonique, p.145, 2012.

, Schémas des prototypes d'entrée pour les modélisations de l'évolution d'un pli de propagation, vol.147, p.262

Q. Diagramme and . Le, Résultats des modélisations numériques données par OptumG2 pour l'étape 10, avec la contrainte maximale (? 1 ), la contrainte minimale (? 3 ), maillage final et orientations de la contrainte principale (les zones bleues sont en extension et le reste est en compression). B. Résultats des valeurs de contraintes en fonction de la profondeur sur 3 puits présentant les contraintes principales, la contrainte moyenne (P ), la contrainte diffé-rentielle (Q) et le rapport Q/P, Des bandes de compaction à composante cisaillante (SECB) dans le domaine grisé, c'est à dire quand 1.2>Q/P >0.7. On forme des bandes de compaction pure (PCB) lorsque 0.7>Q/P >0.35, dans le domaine rosé

, Représentation de l'évolution du rapport Q/P. Rapport Q/P inférieur à 0.35, en blanc, représente la déformation homogène. Rapport Q/P Entre 0.35 et 0.7, en rouge, représente la déformation permettant la mise en place de bandes de compaction pure (PCB). Rapport supérieur à 0.7, en noir, représente le domaine de déformation permettant la mise en place de bande de compaction à composante cisaillante (SECB), Résultats des modélisations pour les différentes étapes de l'évolution du pli

. .. , 159 4.16 A. Diagramme Q ? P pour le point 1 (point témoin). B. Diagramme Q ? P pour le point 2. A. Diagramme Q ? P pour le point 3. B. Diagramme Q ? P pour le point 4. A. Diagramme Q ? P pour le point 5. B. Diagramme Q ? P pour le point 6, Graphique de gauche : valeurs des contraintes principales maximum (? 1 ) correspondantes aux différents points de mesures effectuées sur les résultats des modélisations, en fonction de la profondeur de ces mesures

, La partie supérieure droite du graphique correspond aux points localisés en avant de la verticale à la tête de la rampe (à gauche) et la partie inférieure gauche correspond aux points positionnés en arrière de la verticale de la tête de la rampe (à droite), Partie verte pour les points les plus éloignés avec un faible rapport Q/P (<0.7), partie orange pour les résultats intermédiaires, partie rouge pour les points les plus proches de la rampe présentant un fort rapport Q/P (>0.7) et enfin une partie marron pour les points localisés sous la tête de la rampe, au plus proche de celle-ci mais avec un rapport Q/P faible (<0.7)

A. , Localisation des différents domaines sur plusieurs étapes de l'évolution de la structure

B. , Exemples de structures potentiellement mises en place selon les domaines en comparaison avec l'orientation du champ de contrainte obtenu dans les résultats des modélisations

. Fossen, Wong et al., 1997) pour une taille des grains fixée à R = 0.25 mm. La profondeur de chaque enveloppe respective est, Construction des enveloppes évolutives. A. Relation entre porosité et profondeur d'après des observations de roches silicoclastiques obtenues d'après (Rieke et Chilingar, 1974), modifié d'après, p.167, 1990.

Q. Diagramme and . Point,

Q. Diagramme,

Q. Diagramme,

Q. Diagramme, les symboles grisés représentent les points ayant passé la charnière des dépôts syn-tectoniques (de l'étape 10 à l'étape 14), vol.168, p.264

, Localisation de la mise en place des bandes de déformation dans le cas des grès de Boise II pour les étapes 2, 6, vol.10

, Représentation des régimes de déformation en fonction du rapport Q/P et des types de bandes formées

. Robert, 2018)) pour les étapes 2, 6, 10, 12 et 14 des modélisations, Représen-tation des régimes de déformation en fonction du rapport Q/P et des types de bandes formées

. Zhang, Comparaison avec l'évolution des enveloppes de rupture en fonction de la profondeur selon leur définition empirique P * = ?(Porosité * Rayon des grains, Diagramme Q-P représentant les différents chemins de chargement exposés précédement, vol.3, p.172, 1990.

, Localisation de la mise en place des bandes de déformation pour un grès à porosité variable avec la profondeur, pour les étapes 2, 6, 10, 12 et 14 des modélisations, Représentation des régimes de déformation en fonction du rapport Q/P et des types de bandes formées, p.173

A. , Résultats des variations de contraintes en fonction de la profondeur pour l'étape 8 sur les puits B et C (voir localisation de ces puits Figure 4.11), test avec les friction

?. B. , Résultats des variations de contraintes en fonction de la profondeur pour l'étape 10 sur les puits B et C (voir localisation de ces puits Figure 4.12), test avec les friction internes ? D = 2 ? , ? D = 4 ? (résultats précédents) et ? D = 6 ?

, Etape 8, évolution de la friction interne depuis ? D = 4 ? jusqu'à ? D = 10 ? , les résultats présentent une déformation sur la rampe préexistante pour les tests ? D = 4 ? , ? D = 6 ? et ? D = 8 ? et sont donc valides, mais cette déformation se localise en arrière de la rampe pour le test ? D = 10 ? . B. Etape 10, évolution de la friction interne depuis ? D = 4 ? jusqu'à ? D = 10 ? , les résultats sont valides pour les tests ? D = 4 ? et ? D = 6 ? (malgré l'apparition de la déformation en arrière du prototype. Les valeurs de fiction et ? D = 8 ? et ? D = 10 ? sont non conformes avec ce que l'on veut observer, Test de différents angles de friction internes du décollement et de la rampe et l'impact sur la localisation de la déformation. A