Etude de la déformation dans une formation granulaire poreuse en régime compressif : du terrain au laboratoire.

Abstract : Deformation bands are geological structures that occur in porous and granular material presenting a high porosity (>15%). These structures can be identified as compactive or dilatant, a shear component is also often observed. At the microscopic scale, it is possible to observe a grain rearrangement and an intense compaction and or shearing can lead to grain crushing (known as cataclasis), to form a thin deform zone that will modify the porosity and permeability of the rock. Deformation bands have a non-negligible impact on fluid flow, creating a barrier or a drain in the potential reservoir. The formation of such structures is mainly linked to the tectonic activity but also to the facies and other sedimentological parameters of the host rock. The understanding and the prediction of the occurrence and distribution of the bands is the main objective of this thesis.In this study we analyzed a deformation band site found in the Tremp basin, in the Aren formation localized in the South Central Pyrenean Zone. We defined the nature of these structures with macro and microstructural analysis and by adding a study of the magnetic anisotropy to constrain the shortening direction responsible to the band formation. We evidence two major types of bands showing different orientations and behavior: (1) Pure compaction bands (PCB), perpendicular to the shortening and (2) Shear enhanced compaction bands (SECB), oblique to the same shortening.In comparison with tectonic schedule in the studied area and time vs. burial data of the formation, we deducted that both types of bands took place at a shallow burial (<1km depth), which means short times after deposition. This localized deformation, showing mainly cataclasis, is associated to the growth of the Sant Corneli-Boixols fold and thrust belt. Such structures are not common at a shallow depth and we propose that the calcarenite facies of the host rock is the key factor to explain the band occurrence.Thereafter, we made analytical simulations based on geomechanical experimentations results that allowed us to constrain the stress state and orientations needed to create these structure and to determine the timing of formation compared to the burial of the layers during the growth of the Boixols thrust. The stresses magnitudes are expected to be really low in the case of an early deformation.Finally, we tested and compared our observations and hypothesis to numerical modeling where we analyzed the impact of the growth of a fold and thrust belt on the stress state and orientations and the analysis of potential deformation bands occurrence. The stress distribution and the potential occurrence of deformation bands in a porous reservoir presenting different characteristics and located in front of this fold were studied.With the modelizations results, we exposed that our hypothesis of shallow deformation bands are dependent from the position of failure envelopes (that are dependent on the rock lithology). To explain the band formation we studied in this thesis, a weak mechanical strength of the host rock is needed to form deformation bands at less than a depth of one kilometer. The pure compaction bands are associated to a potentially early layer-parallel shortening (LPS).
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Romain Robert. Etude de la déformation dans une formation granulaire poreuse en régime compressif : du terrain au laboratoire.. Géologie appliquée. Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CERG0971⟩. ⟨tel-02285804⟩

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