Modélisation numérique de l'impact d'hydroliennes sur l'environnement hydrodynamique et sédimentaire du Passage du Fromveur à la pointe Bretagne

Abstract : In spite of a present only emerging operational development along the coast of France, the extraction of the kinetic energy of tidal currents by turbines appears as a promising solution to contribute locally to the energetic transition of insulary territories that are not connected to the continental electricity grid, with limited power needs, and are located in protected and touristic natural areas with a visual heritage to preserve. This doctoral thesis was devoted to the three-dimensional numerical modelling of the hydrodynamic and sedimentary impacts induced by horizontal-axis turbines deployed within the pilot site of the Fromveur Strait, in the natural marine Iroise park, off western Brittany. Numerical simulations are performed with the oceanographic model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modelling System) modified to integrate a theoretical actuator-disk sub-model that assimilates the device to a porous disc opposing the flow with a force equal to the turbine’s thrust. This method was assessed against laboratory measurements within the wake of a porous disc with a diameter (D) of 0.1 m immersed in a permanent flow. A spatial resolution as small as D/10 was required to reproduce observations. After a numerical convergence study at full scale, ROMS was applied, using a nested grid approach targetted towards the Fromveur Strait, to examine wake interactions and cumulative effects within an array of height turbines of 10-m-diameter expected to fulfill the energy need of the island of Ushant. The array layout followed the commonly recommended staggered configuration with respective longitudinal and lateral spacings of 10D and 5D. During spring tidal conditions, the misalignment of the peak flood flow enhanced the wake interactions, reducing by about 15% the array power production in comparison with the peak ebb flow. This lack of power production capacity was lowered to 2% by reducing the lateral spacing to 3D. ROMS predictions were finally exploited to address the influence of this last array of turbines on the local sediment dynamics. Main effects were expected on (i) the deposition of sediments with diameter over 2 mm within the turbine wakes and (ii) the setting in motion of gravels with a diameter of 5 cm between the wakes.
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Nicolas Michelet. Modélisation numérique de l'impact d'hydroliennes sur l'environnement hydrodynamique et sédimentaire du Passage du Fromveur à la pointe Bretagne. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02284644⟩

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