Modèles précliniques de schwannomes vestibulaires pour l'évaluation d’une stratégie de réduction de dose d’irradiation par combinaison avec des thérapies ciblées

Abstract : Context: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are benign neoplasm arising from the Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. Most of sporadic VS carry a bi-allelic inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene NF2. Congenital inactivation of the NF2 gene is linked to the onset of Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), a genetic condition predisposing to the development of multiple benign tumor of the central nervous system with bilateral VS as a hallmark. Treatment of VS is either surgical or by use of radiation therapy delivered in stereotactic condition. A significant dose reduction has led to improving the hearing outcomes while maintaining good tumor control. Meanwhile a significant number of treated patients will develop a progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Laboratory models that faithfully recapitulate NF2 gene inactivation and SNHL are needed to pursue the reduction of the dose delivered.Aim: We aimed at developing new models in-vitro and in-vivo for the study of vestibular schwannoma radio sensitivity in combination with selected compounds that selectively target the pathways activated secondary to NF2 loss of function.Methodes: Human vestibular schwannoma cell lines (HEI_193, HEI_182) and control human Schwann cell line (HEI_286) were used in clonogenic assay to determine the number of colony forming unit (CFU) spontaneously and at increasing dosing of mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin), PI3 kinase inhibitor (GDC_0941), PI3K-mTOR dual inhibitor (BEZ_235) to determine the 50% growth inhibitory threshold (GI50%) then in combination with increasing radiation regimen of gamma radiation emitted by a source of Co60. The mouse cell line inactivated for nf2 (SC4#9) was used to generate orthotropic syngrafts. The growth of the tumor was monitored using MRI and bioluminescence imaging and hearing was tested by recording auditory brainstem responses. Pathology of the cochlea were obtained from paraffin embedded sections and then using fluorescence confocal microscopy of whole mounted transparent cochleae.Results: Soft agar clonogenic assays were used and identified a resistance to radiation therapy in human cell lines of VS inactivated for NF2 when compared to the non-mutated control. This radiation resistance could be overcome by pre-exposure to the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin allowing a return to the radiosensibility of non-mutated control. There was a tendency toward a beneficial effect when using a dual inhibition of the mTOR and PI3 kinase at a maximum dose of exposure to radiation. A mouse model of VS has been developed by stereotactic seeding of nf2 deficient cell line SC4#9 targeting the cochleo-vestibular nerve complex. It recapitulates the growth in the suitable micro-environment and secondary SNHL. The growth has been characterized using MRI and in-vivo bioluminescence imaging. Hearing loss was confirmed using sequential ABR. Last a protocol for the clarification of whole mounted cochleae has been adapted to species of rodents suitable for the pathological study of ototoxic change secondary to VS and/or its treatment.Conclusion: The models presented in this thesis may be used for the preclinical evaluation of combined therapeutic approaches with single dose gamma radiation. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in ototoxicity secondary to VS and of its treatment would improve the molecular targeting in order to warrant better auditory outcomes.
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Nicolas-Xavier Bonne. Modèles précliniques de schwannomes vestibulaires pour l'évaluation d’une stratégie de réduction de dose d’irradiation par combinaison avec des thérapies ciblées. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL2S017⟩. ⟨tel-02284634⟩

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