Synthèse de prodrogues bispécifiques du chondrosarcome, vectorisées vers les protéoglycanes et activables en milieu hypoxique

Abstract : Due to an abundant chondrogenic, poorly vascularized and particularly hypoxic extracellular matrix, chondrosarcoma, a malignant cartilaginous tumour, is chemo- and radio-resistant. A dual targeted therapy leveraging specific chondrosarcoma hallmarks, an extensive cartilaginous extracellular matrix, namely the high negative fixed charge density and severe chronic hypoxia,was investigatedby conjugation of a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP) to quaternary ammonium (QA) functions. Based on preclinical results, animidazole prodrug, ICF05016, was identified and provided the basis for a lead optimization study.This project was designed to identify structure-activity relationships in a series of QA-targeted phosphorodiamidate mustard conjugates. In a first part, a series of 27 conjugates, with different QA function and length of the alkyl linker, was synthesizedvia a common multi-step sequence involvingphosphorylation of a key 2-nitroimidazole alcohol intermediate. Then, biomolecular interactions between these QA derivatives and aggrecan were assessed using thesurface plasmon resonance technology. This screeningrevealed that the affinity depends more on the natureof the QA function, rather than on the linker length. The most promising results were obtainedwith QA bearing a benzyle group. Twelves compounds were then evaluated in terms of hypoxia selective cytotoxicityonthe HEMC-SS cell line. For all prodrugs, an overall improvement in hypoxic selectivity compared with the ICF05016 was obtained and the positive impact of thebenzyle QA function was again highlighted. With a dissociation constant of 2.10 µM in the SPR experiment and an attractive hypoxic selectivity, compound 31fwas further selected for a stability and reductive activation study. Activation of the prodrug and phosphoramide mustard release under reductive chemical conditions, and nitroreductase-based activation were demonstrated. From this study, compound 31f emerged as the most effective PG-targeted HAPs.In a second part, the nature of the halogen and the position of the alkylating arms carried by the phosphorodiamidic mustard were modified. Given the high instability of the final compounds of the brominated series, compared to the chlorinated series, brominated analogs of the compounds ICF05016 and 31fcould not be obtained with sufficient purity to be evaluated in vitro.For ifosfamide-like isomers, the design of the prodrugs was modified due to the instability of the phosphoramidic precursors or difficulties of introducing a secondary amine function on a phosphoryl chloride previously functionalized.A click chemistry approach was developed to tether the spacer arm carrying the tertiary amine function independently of the phosphorylation step and could be extended to the synthesis of triazoleanalogues of the new lead 31f.
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Donia Ghedira-Hellara. Synthèse de prodrogues bispécifiques du chondrosarcome, vectorisées vers les protéoglycanes et activables en milieu hypoxique. Chimie organique. Université Clermont Auvergne; Université de Monastir (Tunisie), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC087⟩. ⟨tel-02284471⟩

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