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, 1. loading the MOT during 3.5 s at the detuning |?| = ? in order to have enough trapped atoms for a good fluorescence imaging

, 2. switching off the magnetic fields and loading the molasse for 200 ms at the detuning ? desired for the temperature measurement

, 3. switching off all the lasers during the time-of-flight

, We use the AOMs to switch on and off the lasers (equivalent to electrical shutters)

, The results are shown on Fig. 6.10, where we plot the temperature T as a function of the inverse detuning 1/|?| (|?| = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5?), and for different intensities I (I = 0.9, 0.6, 0.3I s ). The full lines represent the average temperature of T x and T y (shown in dashed lines). The discrepancy between the two temperature comes from the fact that the magnetic field in the laboratory is not perfectly compensated by our compensation coils, leading to an slight anisotropic expansion of the could. As one can see, This allows us to switch on and off the trap very quickly that is within some microseconds

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